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March 07 2011

Social media in a time of need

The Red Cross and the Los Angeles Fire Department have been at the forefront of adopting social media in crisis response. That's not entirely by choice, given that news of disasters has consistently broken first on Twitter. The challenge is for the men and women entrusted with coordinating response to identify signals in the noise.

Public expectations for those staff are high, as research released by the Red Cross on at the Emergency Social Data Summit last year showed. Nearly half of respondents ask for help on social media and 3 in 4 would expect help to arrive within the hour. "We've set up an expectation that, because we're present in these spaces, we're listening," said Wendy Harman (@wharman), the Red Cross social media director, at a training conference in Tampa, Fla.

At present, those high expectations don't always match up with the capabilities that first responders possess. That's changing. First responders and crisis managers are using a growing suite of tools for gathering information and sharing crucial messages internally and with the public. Structured social data and geospatial mapping suggest one direction where these tools are evolving in the field. Prototype group-messaging platforms like point to ways they may evolve further this year.

Some tools, such as the Red Cross shelter web app and the Shelter View iOS app, allow the public to access information. "If we're going to ask the public for help in a disaster, we need to give them tools," said Trevor Riggen (@triggen), senior director at the Red Cross.

The Red Cross is working on building better filtering tools and mapping geotagged updates to help improve their situational awareness, said Riggen. By aggregating crisis data, visualization, and analysis into operations, they're pressing the opportunity to see where issues are emerging and introducing more relevance into social streams. "One tweet doesn't tell us to shift," said Riggens. "50 tweets will."

The opportunity that more crisis managers are seeing lies in the situational awareness that comes from analyzing massive amounts of social data generated in disasters. In those moments, "the public is a resource, not a liability," said FEMA administrator Craig Fugate (@CraigAtFEMA) last year. "Social media's biggest power, that I see, is to empower the public as a resource."

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Managing online crisis response at the LAFD

Long before the Red Cross joined Twitter and used it in the Haiti earthquake response, Brian Humphrey (@brianhumphrey) of the Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD) was already online, listening.

"The biggest gap directly involves response agencies and the Red Cross," said Humphrey, who currently serves as the LAFD's public affairs officer. "Through social media, we're trying to narrow that gap between response and recovery to offer 'real-time relief'."

Humphrey, who added the @LAFD account to Twitter in 2006, may well have been the first emergency responder on the service. In the following video, he talks more about how technology has changed during his career and how the LAFD is using various social platforms.

For instance, Humphrey found a use for Foursquare that goes beyond a simple check-in: real-time sourcing for a given location. If he hears about an issue in the greater Los Angeles area, Humphrey looks on Foursquare to see who's checked in near there and reaches out to them to learn more about the conditions on the ground. Any relevant information is then passed along to operational staff responding to the incident.

In a second interview, below, Humphrey offers some of his best practices for online crisis communication. Currently, his department operates more than 80 social media accounts, many of which are populated using email. The LAFD is also using lightweight audio creation tools, like Cinch, to distribute reports. New social platforms don't replace existing communication infrastructure like the radio or broadcast television — they complement them.

While the tools may change, the goals have not: responders learn what's happening in the community, share relevant information, and protect those in need. What's shifted is that in an age where people are increasingly equipped with camera phones and Internet connections, citizens can become sensors in disasters. As more platforms like the recent geolocation app that connects citizen first responders to heart attack victims come online, keeping those ears on will continue to grow in importance.


January 27 2011

Social data and geospatial mapping join the crises response toolset

A new online application from geospatial mapping giant ESRI applies trend analysis to help responders to Australia's recent floods create relevance and context from social media reporting. A screenshot of the Australian flood trends map is embedded below:

This web app shows how crowdsourced social intelligence provided by Ushahidi enables emergency social data to be integrated into crisis response in a meaningful way.

The combination of Ushahidi and ESRI in Australia shows that "formal and innovative approaches to information collection and analysis during disasters is possible," said Patrick Meier, "and that there is an interface that can be crafted between official and non-official responses." Meier is a research fellow at the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative and director of crisis mapping at Ushahidi and was reached via email.

The Australian flooding web app includes the ability to toggle layers from OpenStreetMap, satellite imagery, topography, and filter by time or report type. By adding structured social data, the web app provides geospatial information system (GIS) operators with valuable situational awareness that goes beyond standard reporting, including the locations of property damage, roads affected, hazards, evacuations and power outages.

Russ Johnson, ESRI's global director for emergency response, recently spoke with me at the ESRI federal user conference in Washington, D.C. Johnson spent 32 years as a federal employee in southern California, predominantly working in the U.S. Forest Service. He was one of the pioneers who built up the FEMA incident response system, and he commanded one of the 18 teams around the nation that deploy assets in the wake of floods, fires and other disasters. At ESRI, Johnson helps the company understand the workflow and relevance of GIS for first-response operations.

Our full interview is contained in the following video. Excerpts are noted below.

What happened in Australia with ESRI and Ushahidi?

"This was the first time that a major media group used Ushahidi and its media reach to crowdsource reports from the disaster affected population," said Meier. "The combination of crowdsourced reporting with official reporting is noteworthy. And the fact that all of Ushahidi's services were used simultaneously in Queensland is a first."

Johnson hailed Ushahidi for its value as a platform for creating more "boundaried data" from the crisis data circulated around a given event. When better filters have been applied to social data, tagging or filtering, there's an opportunity to add it to GIS. "The web app allows the user to start toggling on social media of a specific variety and then turn on GIS to add hotspotting information," said Johnson. "Based upon that filter, which can be added to the validity of certain information, you can start to see needed resources."

It's similar to leading edge experiments with putting loosely bounded social data into structured forms to make it more actionable, said Johnson. "It makes it all more trustworthy — or at least your confidence is higher. We're all trying to figure out how to take this gift and use it to become more effective and intelligent. The area I work in — mapping and geography — immediately provides context. If we can refine that context, it can lead us to other capabilities. If we know where other responders are located, can we direct closest available resource to the highest need problems."

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