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February 18 2014

January 30 2014

Four short links: 30 January 2014

  1. $200k of Spaceships Destroyed (The Verge) — More than 2,200 of the game’s players, members of EVE’s largest alliances, came together to shoot each other out of the sky. The resultant damage was valued at more than $200,000 of real-world money. [...] Already, the battle has had an impact on the economics and politics of EVE’s universe: as both side scramble to rearm and rebuild, the price of in-game resource tritanium is starting to rise. “This sort of conflict,” Coker said, “is what science fiction warned us about.”
  2. Google Now Has an AI Ethics Committee (HufPo) — sorry for the HufPo link. One of the requirements of the DeepMind acquisition was that Google agreed to create an AI safety and ethics review board to ensure this technology is developed safely. Page’s First Law of Robotics: A robot may not block an advertisement, nor through inaction, allow an advertisement to come to harm.
  3. Academic Torrentsa scalable, secure, and fault-tolerant repository for data, with blazing fast download speeds built on BitTorrent.
  4. Hack Schools Meet California Regulators (Venturebeat) — turns out vocational training is a regulated profession. Regulation meets disruption, annihilate in burst of press releases.

January 10 2014

Russell, Bertrand: Ethics

Bertrand Russell: Ethics This article confines itself to Bertrand Russell’s conversion from ethical cognitivism (similar to G. E. Moore) to ethical non-cognitivism (similar to Ayer).  Russell’s conversion is not only historically important, as it contributes to the rise of metaethics, but it also clarifies the central issues between cognitivism and non-cognitivism. Traditionally, ethics has been […]
Tags: Ethics

December 15 2013

Parental Rights and Obligations

Rights and Obligations of Parents Historically, philosophers have had relatively little to say about the family. This is somewhat surprising, given the pervasive presence and influence of the family upon both individuals and social life. Most philosophers who have addressed issues related to the parent-child relationship—Kant and Aristotle, for example—have done so in a fairly […]
Tags: Ethics

December 14 2013

Distributive Justice

Distributive Justice Theories of distributive justice seek to specify what is meant by a just distribution of goods among members of society. All liberal theories (in the sense specified below) may be seen as expressions of laissez-faire with compensations for factors that they consider to be morally arbitrary. More specifically, such theories may be interpreted […]
Tags: Ethics

December 06 2013

Four short links: 6 December 2013

  1. Society of Mind — Marvin Minsky’s book now Creative-Commons licensed.
  2. Collaboration, Stars, and the Changing Organization of Science: Evidence from Evolutionary BiologyThe concentration of research output is declining at the department level but increasing at the individual level. [...] We speculate that this may be due to changing patterns of collaboration, perhaps caused by the rising burden of knowledge and the falling cost of communication, both of which increase the returns to collaboration. Indeed, we report evidence that the propensity to collaborate is rising over time. (via Sciblogs)
  3. As Engineers, We Must Consider the Ethical Implications of our Work (The Guardian) — applies to coders and designers as well.
  4. Eyewire — a game to crowdsource the mapping of 3D structure of neurons.

August 19 2013

Four short links: 19 August 2013

  1. choir.io explained (Alex Dong) — Sound is the perfect medium for wearable computers to talk back to us. Sound has a dozen of properties that we can tune to convey different level of emotions and intrusivenesses. Different sound packs would fit into various contexts.
  2. Identity Single Point of Failure (Tim Bray) — continuing his excellent series on federated identity. There’s this guy here at Google, Eric Sachs, who’s been doing Identity stuff in the white-hot center of the Internet universe for a lot of years. One of his mantras is “If you’re typing a password into something, unless they have 100+ full-time engineers working on security and abuse and fraud, you should be nervous.” I think he’s right.
  3. What Does It Really Matter If Companies Are Tracking Us Online? (The Atlantic) — Rather, the failures will come in the form of consumers being systematically charged more than they would have been had less information about that particular consumer. Sometimes, that will mean exploiting people who are not of a particular class, say upcharging men for flowers if a computer recognizes that that he’s looking for flowers the day after his anniversary. A summary of Ryan Calo’s paper. (via Slashdot)
  4. Life Inside Brewster’s Magnificent Contraption (Jason Scott) — I’ve been really busy. Checking my upload statistics, here’s what I’ve added to the Internet Archive: Over 169,000 individual objects, totaling 245 terabytes. You should subscribe and keep them in business. I did.

August 05 2013

Four short links: 6 August 2013

  1. White Hat’s Dilemma (Google Docs) — amazeballs preso with lots of tough ethical questions for people in the computer field.
  2. Chinese Hacking Team Caught Taking Over Decoy Water Plant (MIT Tech Review) — Wilhoit went on to show evidence that other hacking groups besides APT1 intentionally seek out and compromise water plant systems. Between March and June this year, 12 honeypots deployed across eight different countries attracted 74 intentional attacks, 10 of which were sophisticated enough to wrest complete control of the dummy control system.
  3. Web Tracing FrameworkRich tools for instrumenting, analyzing, and visualizing web apps.
  4. CoreOSLinux kernel + systemd. That’s about it. CoreOS has just enough bits to run containers, but does not ship a package manager itself. In fact, the root partition is completely read-only, to guarantee consistency and make updates reliable. Docker-compatible.

July 27 2013

Four short links: 29 July 2013

  1. Applied Practical Cryptography — technical but readable article with lots of delicious lines. They’re a little magical, in the same sense that ABS brakes were magical in the 1970s and Cloud applications share metal with strangers, and thus attackers, who will gladly spend $40 to co-host themselves with a target and The conservative approach is again counterintuitive to developers, to whom hardcoding anything is like simony.
  2. Nukemap — interactive visualization of the fallout damage from a nuclear weapon. Now we can all be the scary 1970s “this is what it would look like if [big town] were nuked” documentaries that I remember growing up with. I love interactives for learning the contours of a problem, and making it real and personal in a way that a static visualization cannot. WIN. See also the creator’s writeup.
  3. Legalising WeedChuck, a dealer who switched from selling weed in California to New York and quadrupled his income, told WNYC, “There’s plenty of weed in New York. There’s just an illusion of scarcity, which is part of what I’m capitalizing on. Because this is a black market business, there’s insufficient information for customers.” Invisible economies are frequently inefficient, disrupted by moving online and made market-sense efficient.
  4. Can Software That Predicts Crime Pass Constitutional Muster? (NPR) — “I think most people are gonna defer to the black box,” he says. “Which means we need to focus on what’s going into that black box, how accurate it is, and what transparency and accountability measures we have [for] it.”

April 15 2013

Four short links: 15 April 2013

  1. Know Your HTTP Posters (GitHub) — A0-posters about the HTTP protocol.
  2. Crowdserfingwhen a large corp uses crowd-sourced volunteering for its own financial gain, without giving back. It offends my sense of reciprocity as well, but nobody is coerced into using Google Maps or contributing data to it. How do we decide what is “right”?
  3. Exposed Webcam Viewer — hotels in Russia, lobbies in California, and blinking lights in the darkness from all around the world. (via Hacker News)
  4. Beauty and Joy of Computingan introductory computer science curriculum developed at the University of California, Berkeley, intended for non-CS majors at the high school junior through undergraduate freshman level. Uses Snap, a web-based implementation of Scratch.

February 07 2013

Looking at the many faces and forms of data journalism

Over the past year, I’ve been investigating data journalism. In that work, I’ve found no better source for understanding the who, where, what, how and why of what’s happening in this area than the journalists who are using and even building the tools needed to make sense of the exabyte age. Yesterday, I hosted a Google Hangout with several notable practitioners of data journalism. Video of the discussion is embedded below:

Over the course of the discussion, we talked about what data journalism is, how journalists are using it, the importance of storytelling, ethics, the role of open source and “showing your work” and much more.

Participants

Guests on the hangout included:

Projects

Here are just a few of the sites, services and projects we discussed:

In addition, you can see more of our data journalism coverage here.

January 22 2013

Four short links: 22 January 2013

  1. Design Like Nobody’s Patenting Anything (Wired) — profile of Maker favourites Sparkfun. Instead of relying on patents for protection, the team prefers to outrace other entrants in the field. “The open source model just forces us to innovate,” says Boudreaux. “When we release something, we’ve got to be thinking about the next rev. We’re doing engineering and innovating and it’s what we wanna be doing and what we do well.”
  2. Agree to Agree — why I respect my friend David Wheeler: his Design Scene app, which features daily design inspiration, obtains prior written permission to feature the sites because doing so is not only making things legally crystal clear, but also makes his intentions clear to the sites he’s linking to. He’s shared the simple license they request.
  3. The Coming Fight Between Druids and Engineers (The Edge) — We live in a time when the loneliest place in any debate is the middle, and the argument over technology’s role in our future is no exception. The relentless onslaught of novelties technological and otherwise is tilting individuals and institutions alike towards becoming Engineers or Druids. It is a pressure we must resist, for to be either a Druid or an Engineer is to be a fool. Druids can’t revive the past, and Engineers cannot build technologies that do not carry hidden trouble. (via Beta Knowledge)
  4. Reimagining Math Textbooks (Dan Meyer) — love this outline of how a textbook could meaningfully interact with students, rather than being recorded lectures or PDF versions of cyclostyled notes and multichoice tests. Rather than using a generic example to illustrate a mathematical concept, we use the example you created. We talk about its perimeter. We talk about its area. The diagrams in the margins change. The text in the textbook changes. Check it out — they actually built it!

January 16 2013

Four short links: 16 January 2013

  1. Things Users Don’t Care About (Pete Warden) — every day we relearn these lessons. How great it will be once all their friends are on it.
  2. Tracer FIRE 5 — online workshop and game that teaches network security. [A] week-long hands-on computer security workshop for cyber defenders in DOE, other government agencies, critical infrastructure, and college students. The exercise consists of 2 days of intensive training on a single subject, followed by a 2½-day game in which contestants are placed on a team and must use their new and existing skills to compete with other teams for points across multiple categories. (via Reddit /r/netsec)
  3. Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking (Amazon) — Gabriella Coleman’s new book, which explains us. Exploring the rise and political significance of the free and open source software (F/OSS) movement in the United States and Europe, Coding Freedom details the ethics behind hackers’ devotion to F/OSS, the social codes that guide its production, and the political struggles through which hackers question the scope and direction of copyright and patent law. In telling the story of the F/OSS movement, the book unfolds a broader narrative involving computing, the politics of access, and intellectual property. (Also available as CC-Licensed PDF)
  4. Pro Git (Scott Chacon) — CC-NC-SA licensed book on mad git skills.

November 28 2012

Four short links: 28 November 2012

  1. Moral Machinesit will no longer be optional for machines to have ethical systems. Your car is speeding along a bridge at fifty miles per hour when errant school bus carrying forty innocent children crosses its path. Should your car swerve, possibly risking the life of its owner (you), in order to save the children, or keep going, putting all forty kids at risk? If the decision must be made in milliseconds, the computer will have to make the call. (via BoingBoing)
  2. Hystrixa latency and fault tolerance library designed to isolate points of access to remote systems, services and 3rd party libraries, stop cascading failure and enable resilience in complex distributed systems where failure is inevitable. More information. (via Tom Loosemore)
  3. Offline First: A Better HTML5 Experience — can’t emphasize how important it is to have offline functionality for the parts of the world that don’t have blanket 3G/LTE/etc coverage. (280 south from SF, for example).
  4. Disaster of Biblical Proportions (Business Insider) — impressive collection of graphs and data showing commodity prices indicate our species is living beyond its means.

June 11 2012

Big ethics for big data

As the collection, organization and retention of data has become commonplace in modern business, the ethical implications behind big data have also grown in importance. Who really owns this information? Who is ultimately responsible for maintaining it? What are the privacy issues and obligations? What uses of technology are ethical — or not — when it comes to big data?

These are the questions authors Kord Davis (@kordindex) and Doug Patterson (@dep923) address in "Ethics of Big Data." In the following interview, the two share thoughts about the evolution of the term "big data," ethics in the era of massive information gathering, and the new technologies that raise their concerns for the big data ecosystem.

How do you define "big data"?

Douglas Patterson: The line between big data and plain old data is something that moves with the development of the technology. The new developments in this space make old questions about privacy and other ethical issues far more pressing. What happens when it's possible to know where just about everyone is or what just about everyone watches or reads? From the perspective of business models and processes, "impact" is probably a better way to think about "big" than in terms of current trends in NoSQL platforms, etc.

One useful definition of big data — for those who, like us, don't think it's best to tie it to particular technologies — is that big data is data big enough to raise practical rather than merely theoretical concerns about the effectiveness of anonymization.

Kord Davis: The frequently-cited characteristics "volume, velocity, and variety" are useful landmarks — persistent features such as the size of datasets, the speed at which they can be acquired and queried, and the wide range of formats and file types generating data.

The impact, however, is where ethical issues live. Big data is generating a "forcing function" in our lives through its sheer size and speed. Recently, CNN published a story similar to an example in our book. Twenty-five years ago, our video rental history was deemed private enough that Congress enacted a law to prevent it from being shared in hopes of reducing misuse of the information. Today, millions of people want to share that exact same information with each other. This is a direct example of how big data's forcing function is literally influencing our values.

The influence is a two-way street. Much like the scientific principle that we can't observe a system without changing it, big data can't be used without an impact — it's just too big and fast. Big data can amplify our values, making them much more powerful and influential, especially when they are collected and focused toward a specific desired outcome.

Big data tends to be a broad category. How do you narrow it down?

Douglas Patterson: One way is the anonymization of datasets before they're released publicly, acted on to target advertising, etc. As the legal scholar Paul Ohm puts it, "data can be either useful or perfectly anonymous, but never both."

So, suppose I know things about you in particular: where you've eaten, what you've watched. It's very unlikely that I'm going to end up violating your privacy by releasing the "information" that there's one particular person who likes carne asada and British sitcoms. But if I have that information about 100 million people, patterns emerge that do make it possible to tie data points to particular named, located individuals.

Kord Davis: Another approach is the balance between risk and innovation. Big data represents massive opportunities to benefit business, education, healthcare, government, manufacturing, and many other fields. The risks, however, to personal privacy, the ability to manage our individual reputations and online identities, and what it might mean to lose — or gain — ownership over our personal data are just now becoming topics of discussion, some parts of which naturally generate ethical questions. To take advantage of the benefits big data innovations offer, the practical risks of implementing them need to be understood.

How do ethics apply to big data?

Kord Davis: Big data itself, like all technology, is ethically neutral. The use of big data, however, is not. While the ethics involved are abstract concepts, they can have very real-world implications. The goal is to develop better ways and means to engage in intentional ethical inquiry to inform and align our actions with our values.

There are a significant number of efforts to create a digital "Bill of Rights" for the acceptable use of big data. The White House recently released a blueprint for a Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights. The values it supports include transparency, security, and accountability. The challenge is how to honor those values in everyday actions as we go about the business of doing our work.

Do you anticipate friction between data providers (people) and data aggregators (companies) down the line?

Douglas Patterson: Definitely. For example: you have an accident and you're taken to the hospital unconscious for treatment. Lots of data is generated in the process, and let's suppose it's useful data for developing more effective treatments. Is it obvious that that's your data? It was generated during your treatment, but also with equipment the hospital provided, based on know-how developed over decades in various businesses, universities, and government-linked institutions, all in the course of saving your life. In addition to generating profits, that same data may help save lives down the road. Creating the data was, so to speak, a mutual effort, so it's not obvious that it's your data. But it's also not obvious that the hospital can just do whatever it wants with it. Maybe under the right circumstances, the data could be de-anonymized to reveal what sort of embarrassing thing you were doing when you got hurt, with great damage to your reputation. And giving or selling data down the line to aggregators and businesses that will attempt to profit from it is one thing the hospital might want to do with the data that you might want to prevent — especially if you don't get a percentage.

Questions of ownership, questions about who gets to say what may and may not be done with data, are where the real and difficult issues arise.

Which data technologies raise ethical concerns?

Douglas Patterson: Geolocation is huge — think of the flap over the iPhone's location logging a while back, or how much people differ over whether or not it's creepy to check yourself or a friend into a location on Facebook or Foursquare. Medical data is going to become a bigger and bigger issue as that sector catches up.

Will lots of people wake up someday and ask for a "do over" on how much information they've been giving away via the "frictionless sharing" of social media? As a teacher, I was struck by how little concern my students had about this — contrasted with my parents, who find something pretty awful about broadcasting so much information. The trend seems to be in favor of certain ideas about privacy going the way of the top hat, but trends like that don't always continue.

Kord Davis: The field of predictive analytics has been around for a long time, but the development of big data technologies has increased accessibility to large datasets and the ability to data mine and correlate data using commodity hardware and software. The potential benefits are massive. A promising example is that longitudinal studies in education can gather and process significantly more minute data characteristics and we have no idea what we might learn. Which is precisely the point. Being able to assess a more refined population of cohorts may well turn out to unlock powerful ways to improve education. Similar conditions exist for healthcare, agriculture, and even being able to predict weather more reliably and reducing damage from catastrophic natural weather events.

On the other hand, the availability of larger datasets and the ability to process and query against them makes it very tempting for organizations to share and cross-correlate to gain deeper insights. If you think it's difficult to identify values and align them with actions within a single organization, imagine how many organizations the trail of your data exhaust touches in a single day.

Even a simple, singular transaction, such as buying a pair of shoes online touches your bank, the merchant card processor, the retail or wholesale vendor, the shoe manufacturer, the shipping company, your Internet service provider, the company that runs or manages the ecommerce engine that makes it possible, and every technology infrastructure organization that supports them. That's a lot of opportunity for any single bit of your transaction to be stored, shared, or otherwise mis-used. Now imagine the data trail for paying your taxes. Or voting — if that ever becomes widely available.

What recent events point to the future impact of big data?

Douglas Patterson: For my money, the biggest impact is in the funding of just about everything on the web by either advertising dollars or investment dollars chasing advertising dollars. Remember when you used to have to pay for software? Now look at what Google will give you for free, all to get your data and show you ads. Or, think of the absolutely pervasive impact of Facebook on the lives of many of its users — there's very little about my social life that hasn't been affected by it.

Down the road there may be more Orwellian or "Minority Report" sorts of things to worry about — maybe we're already dangerously close now. On the positive side again, there will doubtless be some amazing things in medicine that come out of big data. Its impact is only going to get bigger.

Kord Davis: Regime change efforts in the Middle East and the Occupy Movement all took advantage of big data technologies to coordinate and communicate. Each of those social movements shared a deep set of common values, and big data allowed them to coalesce at an unprecedented size, speed, and scale. If there was ever an argument for understanding more about our values and how they inform our actions, those examples are powerful reminders that big data can influence massive changes in our lives.

This interview was edited and condensed.

Ethics of Big Data — This book outlines a framework businesses can use to maintain ethical practices while working with big data.

Related:

February 12 2012

La nature humaine selon David Hume par Gilles Deleuze (Audio)

Enregistrement radiophonique de Gilles Deleuze datant de 1956, trois ans après Empirisme et subjectivité, « Essai sur la nature humaine selon Hume » (P.U.F., 1953)



See it on Scoop.it, via Philosophie en France


[...]

L'intérêt de l'interprétation deleuzienne de Hume est d'avoir situé, avant l'ouvrage remarquable de Didier Deleule (Hume et la naissance du libéralisme économique, Aubier, 1979), le centre de la philosophie humienne dans la pratique. «Le souci constant de Hume ne concerne pas le point de vue de la connaissance». Le plus important pour lui n'est pas la théorie de l'association des idées ni la théorie de la causalité auxquelles depuis Kant la tradition tend a réduire son apport, mais «le domaine d'une pratique de l'homme dans la société». Hume fut en particulier l'un des fondateurs de l'économie politique, rappelle Deleuze avant que Deleule ne démontre magistralement qu'il fut aussi le critique de la physiocratie quesnaysienne. Ainsi lit-on dans Empirisme et subjectivité (p. 138) que «l'association des idées ne définit pas un sujet connaissant, mais au contraire un ensemble de moyens possibles pour un sujet pratique dont toutes les fins réelles sont d'ordre passionnel, moral, politique, économique.» Mais Deleuze combat encore l'idée que Hume aurait été le chantre de l'intérêt égoïste bien compris. L'homme n'est pas naturellement égoïste, mais partial. Ce n'est pas la même pensée. Le problème de la société, selon Deleuze que sur ce point Deleule salue dans son livre, n'est pas de limiter les égoïsmes, mais d'«intégrer les sympathies», de faire en sorte «que la sympathie dépasse sa contradiction, sa partialité naturelle» (op. cit., p. 27, et cf. D. Deleule, op. cit., p. 200, note 84). Par là s'éclaire la critique du contrat social dans sa forme lockienne, sinon déjà dans sa version rousseauiste, développée dans Of the original contract (1752, trad. in Discours politiques, bilingue, T.E.R, 1993).

Ce sont ces thèmes directeurs de la lecture deleuzienne de Hume que l'on retrouvera dans la communication radiodiffusée de 1956, introduction vivante à Empirisme et subjectivité.

Audio:

  • Length: 15:23 minutes (14.08 Mo)
  • Format: MP3 Stereo 44kHz 128Kbps (CBR)

Reposted from02myhumsci-01 02myhumsci-01

Volker Gerhardt on Habermas and the public sphere | habermas-rawls.blogspot

In "Die Welt" (February 11, 2012), Volker Gerhardt writes on Jürgen Habermas and the 50th anniversary of his famous book on the public sphere "Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit" (Luchterband, 1962):

"Der lange Abschied vom Marxismus"

Volker Gerhardt is Professor of Philosophy at the Humboldt University in Berlin. Among his books is "Partizipation. Das Prinzip der Politik" (C.H.Beck, 2007).

// oAnth

"Die Welt" (February 11, 2012):

[...]

Angesichts dieser an Verwerfungen reichen Vorgeschichte kann man es nur als großes Glück bezeichnen, dass sich Jürgen Habermas in den letzten Jahren dem Thema Europa zugewandt und hier beharrlich Öffentlichkeit eingefordert hat. Hier konnte er der Öffentlichkeit primär die von ihm stets als wesentlich angesehene kritische Funktion zuzuweisen. Und eben diese Rolle kommt ihr heute zu, nachdem in Brüssel nicht mehr bloß der Überfluss verwaltet wird, sondern über Lebensfragen der vereinigten Länder verhandelt werden muss. Jetzt stellt sich in den betroffenen Staaten ein grenzüberschreitendes öffentliches Interesse ein. Mitten in der Krise seiner Finanz- und Wirtschaftspolitik tut Europa einen weiteren wichtigen Schritt zur Überwindung seiner nationalen Binnenstruktur. Diesen "Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit" können wir mit Habermas nur begrüßen, auch wenn wir bedauern, dass er hinter diesem Vorgang nur ein weiteres Versagen des Kapitalismus ausmachen kann.

[...]

---------------------------------

The whole article is IMHO too much adapted at the general editorial outlines of "Die Welt" (Springer). The essential ideas of participation and public space aren't really worked out, in spite of some useful remarks about the classical period of the ancient greek democracy.

Reposted from02myhumsci-01 02myhumsci-01

February 10 2012

02mydafsoup-01
[...]

KarriereSPIEGEL: Wie müsste so eine Reform aussehen?

Sattelberger: Es geht nicht nur um inhaltliche Reform in Forschung und Lehre, sondern auch beim Personal sowie in Führung und Steuerung einer Schule. Dazu gehört beispielsweise die Frage, ob Professoren zwar ausgezeichnete Fachleute sind, aber mit unmoralischen Handlungskonzepten hantieren, ob Fakultätsmitglieder wie streunende Katzen auf der Suche nach lukrativen Beratungsaufträgen sind. Die Finanzkrise hat ja aufgezeigt, welche inzestuösen Vernetzungen es zwischen Investmentbanken und Professoren führender US-Schulen gab, die auf der Gehaltsliste von Banken standen. Es geht auch darum, nach welchen Kriterien Professoren rekrutiert und befördert werden - spielen da Charakter und soziale Kompetenz auch eine Rolle, oder zählen nur die theoretischen Veröffentlichungen in erstklassigen Journalen? Gibt es einen Code of Conduct, einen Verhaltenskodex? Und hat die Schule einen funktionierenden Beirat? Oft sind Beiräte keine Kontrolleure, sondern werden nur als Geldbeschaffer und Aushängeschilder für die Schule instrumentalisiert. Institutionelle Reformen halte ich für wesentlich schwieriger und wichtiger als die inhaltlich-fachliche Reform.

[...]

Managerausbildung: "Die großen Business Schools sind lebendige Leichen" | SPIEGEL ONLINE - 2012-02-09 (via nachdenkseiten.de - Hinweise des Tages II - 2012-02-12)

February 07 2012

the anti-social...

CP “I would like you to explain your concept of community(which can range all the way from the micro-community of lovers to the universal community of spirit in Christianity) How could the coming community go beyond this exclusivity?”

JLN “I want to stress that I don’t like to use the term ‘community’ without certain precautions. It has come to connote very much the ‘exclusive community’ you mention, and perhaps it may have always denoted that exclusivity. But what I have sought to works with is directed against any inferiority of community. That is why I prefer to speak of being-in-common or being-with. These are heavy expressions, I know. Their density avoids the seduction of the word ‘community’…”

Jean-Luc Nancy and Chantal Pontbriand (2000) from the Commonwealth catalogue in 2003.

Communities, of whatever type always drift towards exclusivity and to read the rest of the above text demonstrates the impossibility of philosophy in itself escaping from the exclusivity. And yet the commons as the phrase above suggests there is such a potential place, a commonwealth. I seem to be running into philosophical exclusivities quite a lot recently… I wish I could say I don’t understand why.

// oAnth - original URL - driftwork.tumblr

Reposted from02myhumsci-01 02myhumsci-01

Grundeinkommen, Wachstumszwang und geistiges Eigentum | differentia.wordpress 2012-02-03

Im Anschluss an den letzten Artikel ist in der Diskussion bei G+ der Einwand von Sascha Lobo aufgetaucht, dass der Fortbestand des Netzes auch davon abhängt, ob sich mit Inhalten ausreichend viel Geld verdienen lässt. Dieser Einwand ist berechtigt, widerlegt aber nichts, sondern verweist und die Kontingenz von Erfahrung.
Ein großes Hindernis in der Debatte um eine Grundeinkommen besteht darin, dass niemand eine Antwort auf die Frage hat, wie der wirtschaftliche Wachstumszwang überwunden werden könnte. Der Wachstumszwang entsteht durch Zinsstress. Kurz erklärt: alle zirkulierenden Guthaben kommen durch Kredite in Umlauf, welche zurück gezahlt werden müssen, obwohl eine Bank kein Geld verleiht. Sie erzeugt lediglich Kontostände (fiat money) und verlangt Zinsen und vernichtet diese Kontostände wieder. Übrig bleiben als Gewinne die Zinsen. Für diese Zinsen müssen aber weitere Kredite aufgenommen werden usw. Es muss die Wirtschaft also wachsen, um Zins und Zinseszins bezahlen zu können. Das ist der Grund, weshalb unter den Bedingungen des Wachstumszwangs kein Grundeinkommen verteilt werden kann. Es kann nämlich sein, dass dann kein Wachstum erzwungen werden kann. Wohlgemerkt: es könnte sehr wohl Wachstum geben, aber er kann nicht erzwungen werden. Oder auch so formuliert: ein Grundeinkommen kann nicht gewährt werden, weil für diese Guthaben niemand bereit wäre, Kredite aufzunehmen. Wer sollte dies tun? Gegenwärtig wird zwar an alle Bürger eine Art Grundeinkommen verteilt, aber all das unterliegt der hoch komplizierten Sanktionsmöglichkeiten durch den Staat, den zu finanzieren Kredite notwendig sind. Das gegenwärtige Grundeinkommen für alle Bürger besteht erstens in einem Steuerfreibetrag, den dienigen erhalten, die einer Erwerbsarbeit nachgehen, und die Auszahlung von Arbeitslosengeld oder Sozialhilfe für diejenigen, die von der Erwaerbsarbeit ausgeschlossen wurden. Diese Verteilungkosten treiben die Staatsschulden in die Höhe. Das Argument, bei einem Grundeinkommen für alle Bürger würde der Staat eben auch nur Schulden und vielleicht sogar weniger machen, weil der die kostenintensive Verteilungsbürokratie nicht finanzieren müsste, stimmt zwar, aber dann stellt sich Frage, wer die notwendigen Schulden macht, um die Wachstumsspirale weiter zu treiben. Würde der Staat weniger Schulden machen, muss jemand anders die Schulden machen. Denn nur durch Schulden kommen Guthaben in Umlauf.
Daraus ergibt sich eine Art Arbeitsverbot für alle Beteiligten. Denn gewerblich tätig sein heißt, ein ökonomisches Arbeitsverbot zu überwinden, welches kooperativ von Banken und Staaten durchgesetzt wird. Das Arbeitsverbot von Banken lautet: keiner darf arbeiten, investieren, produzieren und Gewinne machen, es sei denn, man bekommt von der Bank einen Kredit, durch welchen die Bank zuerst verdient, ohne selbst zu arbeiten, zu investieren, zu produzieren. Gelingt die Überwindung des Arbeitsverbot der Banken, bekommt man einen Kredit, sonst nicht und verbleibt gewerblich untätig. Übrigens steigern Banken dieses Verbot: ist es gelungen, das Verbot überwinden, steigern die Banken die Renditeforderung. Und es gilt die Regel: die Renditeforderung wird immer zuerst erfüllt, nicht die Lohnforderung. Wer die Lohnforderung steigert, ohne dass die Rendite zuerst steigt, wird in die Arbeitslosigkeit getrieben. Oder ist die zu erwartende Rendite zu gering, so wird auch nicht investiert, wie nützlich die Produkte auch immer sein mögen. Es kommt nicht auf die Produkte, auf den Nutzen für die Menschen an, sondern auf den Renditevorbehalt der Banken.
Das Arbeitsverbot vom Staat lautet: gelingt es nicht, die Schikane der Banken zu überwinden, wird man vom Staat schikaniert, durch Steuern, Sozialabgaben, oder durch ein Arbeitslosenamt, das die Bedingungen zur Forsetzung des Lebens unter die Vorraussetzung stellt, für die Lösung des Problems der Arbeitslosigkeit zu sorgen, ohne dass dies dem Einzelnen gelingen kann. Protest dagegen ist zulässig aber wirkungslos. So ist der Umstand des Gelingens einer gewerblichen Tätigkeit nur eine Frage der sozial verteilten Wahrscheinlichkeit, nicht das Vermögen einzelner Menschen.
Für das Urheberecht gelten eben diese Voraussetzungen: nur solche Ideen können vermarktet werden, die dazu geeignet sind, die Renditeforderung zu erfüllen. Alle anderen Ideen dürfen zwar auch geäußert werden, sind aber ökonomisch irrelevant.

Daraus ergibt sich die Einsicht, dass die Verteilung eines Grundeinkommens auf die gleichen Bedingungen trifft wie der Verzicht auf Urheberschaft, weil nämlich beides in ökonomischer Hinsicht nur durch den Wachstumszwang von Bedeutung ist.
Daraus ergibt sich folglich auch die Beurteilung des politischen Problems: nicht die Einführung eines Grundeinkommens, nicht die Abschaffung des Urheberrechts ist das Problem, sondern der ideologische Klammergriff der Wachstumsspirale.

Siehe dazu auch:
Kreditwirtschaft und Atomenergie


Tagged: fiat money, Grundeinkommen, kredite, Urheberrecht, Wachstum, Wachstumszwang 
Reposted from02myhumsci-01 02myhumsci-01
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