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December 13 2012

Science Podcast - Pheromone attraction, insect diversity, smart rocks, and more (14 Dec 2012)

Spatial learning with help from pheromones, counting insects in a forest, making smarter rocks, and more...

September 13 2012

Growth of SMART health care apps may be slow, but inevitable

This week has been teaming with health care conferences, particularly in Boston, and was declared by President Obama to be National Health IT Week as well. I chose to spend my time at the second ITdotHealth conference, where I enjoyed many intense conversations with some of the leaders in the health care field, along with news about the SMART Platform at the center of the conference, the excitement of a Clayton Christiansen talk, and the general panache of hanging out at the Harvard Medical School.

SMART, funded by the Office of the National Coordinator in Health and Human Services, is an attempt to slice through the Babel of EHR formats that prevent useful applications from being developed for patient data. Imagine if something like the wealth of mash-ups built on Google Maps (crime sites, disaster markers, restaurant locations) existed for your own health data. This is what SMART hopes to do. They can already showcase some working apps, such as overviews of patient data for doctors, and a real-life implementation of the heart disease user interface proposed by David McCandless in WIRED magazine.

The premise and promise of SMART

At this conference, the presentation that gave me the most far-reaching sense of what SMART can do was by Nich Wattanasin, project manager for i2b2 at Partners. His implementation showed SMART not just as an enabler of individual apps, but as an environment where a user could choose the proper app for his immediate needs. For instance, a doctor could use an app to search for patients in the database matching certain characteristics, then select a particular patient and choose an app that exposes certain clinical information on that patient. In this way, SMART an combine the power of many different apps that had been developed in an uncoordinated fashion, and make a comprehensive data analysis platform from them.

Another illustration of the value of SMART came from lead architect Josh Mandel. He pointed out that knowing a child’s blood pressure means little until one runs it through a formula based on the child’s height and age. Current EHRs can show you the blood pressure reading, but none does the calculation that shows you whether it’s normal or dangerous. A SMART app has been developer to do that. (Another speaker claimed that current EHRs in general neglect the special requirements of child patients.)

SMART is a close companion to the Indivo patient health record. Both of these, aong with the i2b2 data exchange system, were covered in article from an earlier conference at the medical school. Let’s see where platforms for health apps are headed.

How far we’ve come

As I mentioned, this ITdotHealth conference was the second to be held. The first took place in September 2009, and people following health care closely can be encouraged by reading the notes from that earlier instantiation of the discussion.

In September 2009, the HITECH act (part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) had defined the concept of “meaningful use,” but nobody really knew what was expected of health care providers, because the ONC and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services did not release their final Stage 1 rules until more than a year after this conference. Aneesh Chopra, then the Federal CTO, and Todd Park, then the CTO of Health and Human Services, spoke at the conference, but their discussion of health care reform was a “vision.” A surprisingly strong statement for patient access to health records was made, but speakers expected it to be accomplished through the CONNECT Gateway, because there was no Direct. (The first message I could find on the Direct Project forum dated back to November 25, 2009.) Participants had a sophisticated view of EHRs as platforms for applications, but SMART was just a “conceptual framework.”

So in some ways, ONC, Harvard, and many other contributors to modern health care have accomplished an admirable amount over three short years. But some ways we are frustratingly stuck. For instance, few EHR vendors offer API access to patient records, and existing APIs are proprietary. The only SMART implementation for a commercial EHR mentioned at this week’s conference was one created on top of the Cerner API by outsiders (although Cerner was cooperative). Jim Hansen of Dossia told me that there is little point to encourage programmers to create SMART apps while the records are still behind firewalls.

Keynotes

I couldn’t call a report on ITdotHealth complete without an account of the two keynotes by Christiansen and Eric Horvitz, although these took off in different directions from the rest of the conference and served as hints of future developments.

Christiansen is still adding new twists to the theories laid out in c The Innovator’s Dilemma and other books. He has been a backer of the SMART project from the start and spoke at the first ITdotHealth conference. Consistent with his famous theory of disruption, he dismisses hopes that we can reduce costs by reforming the current system of hospitals and clinics. Instead, he projects the way forward through technologies that will enable less trained experts to successively take over tasks that used to be performed in more high-cost settings. Thus, nurse practitioners will be able to do more and more of what doctors do, primary care physicians will do more of what we current delegate to specialists, and ultimately the patients and their families will treat themselves.

He also has a theory about the progression toward openness. Radically new technologies start out tightly integrated, and because they benefit from this integration they tend to be created by proprietary companies with high profit margins. As the industry comes to understand the products better, they move toward modular, open standards and become commoditized. Although one might conclude that EHRs, which have been around for some forty years, are overripe for open solutions, I’m not sure we’re ready for that yet. That’s because the problems the health care field needs to solve are quite different from the ones current EHRs solve. SMART is an open solution all around, but it could serve a marketplace of proprietary solutions and reward some of the venture capitalists pushing health care apps.

While Christiansen laid out the broad environment for change in health care, Horvitz gave us a glimpse of what he hopes the practice of medicine will be in a few years. A distinguished scientist at Microsoft, Horvitz has been using machine learning to extract patterns in sets of patient data. For instance, in a collection of data about equipment uses, ICD codes, vital signs, etc. from 300,000 emergency room visits, they found some variables that predicted a readmission within 14 days. Out of 10,000 variables, they found 500 that were relevant, but because the relational database was strained by retrieving so much data, they reduced the set to 23 variables to roll out as a product.

Another project predicted the likelihood of medical errors from patient states and management actions. This was meant to address a study claiming that most medical errors go unreported.

A study that would make the privacy-conscious squirm was based on the willingness of individuals to provide location data to researchers. The researchers tracked searches on Bing along with visits to hospitals and found out how long it took between searching for information on a health condition and actually going to do something about it. (Horvitz assured us that personally identifiable information was stripped out.)

His goal is go beyond measuring known variables, and to find new ones that could be hidden causes. But he warned that, as is often the case, causality is hard to prove.

As prediction turns up patterns, the data could become a “fabric” on which many different apps are based. Although Horvitz didn’t talk about combining data sets from different researchers, it’s clearly suggested by this progression. But proper de-identification and flexible patient consent become necessities for data combination. Horvitz also hopes to move from predictions to decisions, which he says is needed to truly move to evidence-based health care.

Did the conference promote more application development?

My impression (I have to admit I didn’t check with Dr. Ken Mandl, the organizer of the conference) was that this ITdotHealth aimed to persuade more people to write SMART apps, provide platforms that expose data through SMART, and contribute to the SMART project in general. I saw a few potential app developers at the conference, and a good number of people with their hands on data who were considering the use of SMART. I think they came away favorably impressed–maybe by the presentations, maybe by conversations that the meeting allowed them to have with SMART developers–so we may see SMART in wider use soon. Participants came far for the conference; I talked to one from Geneva, for instance.

The presentations were honest enough, though, to show that SMART development is not for the faint-hearted. On the supply side–that is, for people who have patient data and want to expose it–you have to create a “container” that presents data in the format expected by SMART. Furthermore, you must make sure the data conforms to industry standards, such as SNOMED for diagnoses. This could be a lot of conversion.

On the application side, you may have to deal with SMART’s penchant for Semantic Web technologies such as OWL and SPARQL. This will scare away a number of developers. However, speakers who presented SMART apps at the conference said development was fairly easy. No one matched the developer who said their app was ported in two days (most of which were spent reading the documentation) but development times could usually be measured in months.

Mandl spent some time airing the idea of a consortium to direct SMART. It could offer conformance tests (but probably not certification, which is a heavy-weight endeavor) and interact with the ONC and standards bodies.

After attending two conferences on SMART, I’ve got the impression that one of its most powerful concepts is that of an “app store for health care applications.” But correspondingly, one of the main sticking points is the difficulty of developing such an app store. No one seems to be taking it on. Perhaps SMART adoption is still at too early a stage.

Once again, we are batting our heads up against the walls erected by EHRs to keep data from being extracted for useful analysis. And behind this stands the resistance of providers, the users of EHRs, to give their data to their patients or to researchers. This theme dominated a federal government conference on patient access.

I think SMART will be more widely adopted over time because it is the only useful standard for exposing patient data to applications, and innovation in health care demands these apps. Accountable Care Organizations, smarter clinical trials (I met two representatives of pharmaceutical companies at the conference), and other advances in health care require data crunching, so those apps need to be written. And that’s why people came from as far as Geneva to check out SMART–there’s nowhere else to find what they need. The technical requirements to understand SMART seem to be within the developers’ grasps.

But a formidable phalanx of resistance remains, from those who don’t see the value of data to those who want to stick to limited exchange formats such as CCDs. And as Sean Nolan of Microsoft pointed out, one doesn’t get very far unless the app can fit into a doctor’s existing workflow. Privacy issues were also raised at the conference, because patient fears could stymie attempts at sharing. Given all these impediments, the government is doing what it can; perhaps the marketplace will step in to reward those who choose a flexible software platform for innovation.

June 21 2012

Clinician, researcher, and patients working together: progress aired at Indivo conference

While thousands of health care professionals were flocking to the BIO International Convention this week, I spent Monday in a small library at the Harvard Medical School listening to a discussion of the Indivo patient health record and related open source projects with about 80 intensely committed followers. Lead Indivo architect Daniel Haas, whom I interviewed a year ago, succeeded in getting the historical 2.0 release of Indivo out on the day of the conference. This article explains the significance of the release in the health care field and the promise of the work being done at Harvard Medical School and its collaborators.

Although still at the early adoption stages, Indivo and the related SMART and i2b2 projects merit attention and have received impressive backing. The Office of the National Coordinator funded SMART, and NIH funded i2b2. National Coordinator Farzad Mostashari was scheduled to attend Monday's conference (although he ended up having to speak over a video hookup). Indivo inspired both Microsoft HealthVault and Google Health, and a good deal of its code underlies HealthVault. Australia has taken a nationwide PHR initiative inspired by Indivo. A Partners HealthCare representative spoke at the conference, as did someone from the MIT Media Lab. Clayton M. Christensen et al. cited Indivo as a good model in The Innovator's Prescription: A Disruptive Solution for Health Care. Let's take a look at what makes the combination so powerful.

Platform and reference implementation

The philosophy underlying this distributed open source initiative is to get clinicians, health researchers, and patients to share data and work together. Today, patient data is locked up in thousands of individual doctors or hospital repositories; whether they're paper or electronic hardly makes a difference because they can't be combined or queried. The patient usually can't see his own data, as I described in an earlier posting, much less offer it to researchers. Dr. Kenneth Mandl, opening the conference, pointed out that currently, an innovative company in the field of health data will die on the vine because they can't get data without making deals with each individual institution and supporting its proprietary EHR.

The starting point for changing all that, so far as this conference goes, is the SMART platform. It simply provides data models for storing data and APIs to retrieve it. If an electronic health record can translate data into a simple RDF model and support the RESTful API, any other program or EHR that supports SMART can access the data. OAuth supports security and patient control over access.

Indivo is a patient health record (or, to use the term preferred by the conference speakers, a personally controlled health record). It used to have its own API, and the big significance of Monday's 2.0 release is that it now supports SMART. The RESTful interface will make Indivo easy to extend beyond its current Java and Python interfaces. So there's a far-reaching platform now for giving patients access to data and working seemlessly with other cooperating institutions.

The big missing piece is apps, and a hackathon on Tuesday (which I couldn't attend) was aimed at jump-starting a few. Already, a number of researchers are using SMART to coordinate data sharing and computation through the i2b2 platform developed by Partners. Ultimately, the SMART and Indivo developers hope to create an app store, inspired by Apple's, where a whole marketplace can develop. Any app written to the SMART standard can run in Indivo or any other system supporting SMART. But the concept of an app in SMART and Indivo is different from a consumer market, though. The administrator of the EHR or PHR would choose apps, vetting them for quality and safety, and then a doctor, researcher, or patient could use one of the chosen apps.

Shawn Murphy of Partners described the use of i2b2 to choose appropriate patients for a clinical study. Instead of having to manually check many different data repositories manually for patients meeting the requirements (genetic, etc.), a researcher could issue automated queries over SMART to the databases. The standard also supports teamwork across institutions. Currently, 60 different children's hospitals' registries talk to each other through i2b2.

It should be noted i2b2 does not write into a vendor's EHR system (which the ONC and many others call an important requirement for health information exchange) because putting data back into a silo isn't disruptive innovation. It's better to give patients a SMART-compatible PHR such as Indivo.

Regarding Tuesday's hackathon, Haas wrote me, "By the end of the day, we had several interesting projects in the works, including an app to do contextualized search based on a patient's Problems list (integration with google.com and MedlinePlus), and app integration with BodyTrack, which displays Indivo labs data in time-series form alongside data from several other open API inputs, such as Fitbit and Zeo devices."

Standards keep things simple

All the projects mentioned are low-budget efforts, so they all borrow and repurpose whatever open source tools they can. As Mostashari said in his video keynote, they believe in "using what you've got." I have already mentioned SMART's dependence on standards, and Indivo is just as behold to other projects, particularly Django. For instance, Indivo allows data to be stored in Django's data models (Python structures that represent basic relational tables). Indivo also provides an even simpler JSON-based data model.

The format of data is just as important as the exchange protocol, if interoperability is to success. The SMART team chose to implement several "best-of-breed" standards that would cover 80% of use cases: for instance, SNOMED for medical conditions, RxNORM for medications, and LOINC for labs. Customers using other terminologies will have to translate them into the supported standards, so SMART contains Provenance fields indicating the data source.

The software is also rigorously designed to be modular, so both the original developers and other adopters can replace pieces as desired. Indivo already has plenty of fields about patient data and about context (provider names, etc.), but more can be added ad infinitum to support any health app that comes along. Indivo 2.0 includes pluggable data models, which allow a site to customize every step from taking in data to removing it. It also supports new schemas for data of any chosen type.

The simplicity of Indivo, SMART, and i2b2--so much in contrast with most existing health information exchanges--is reminiscent of Blue Button. Mandl suggested that a Blue Button app would be easy to write. But the difference is that Blue Button aimed to be user-friendly whereas the projects at this conference are developer-friendly. That means that can add some simple structure and leave it up to app developers to present the data to users in a friendly manner.

The last hurdle

Because SMART and Indivo ultimately want the patient to control access to data, trust is a prerequisite. OAuth is widely used by Twitter apps and other sites across the Web, but hasn't been extensively tested in a health care environment. We'll need more experience with OAuth to see whether the user experience and their sense of security are adequate. And after that, trust is up to the institutions adopting Indivo or SMART. A couple speakers pointed out that huge numbers of people trust mint.com with their passwords to financial accounts, so when they learn the benefits of access to patient records they should adopt Indivo as well. An Indivo study found that 84% of people are willing to share data with social networks for research and learning.

SMART, Indivo, and i2b2 make data sharing easier than ever. but as many have pointed out, none of this will get very far until patients, government, and others demand that institutions open up. Mandl suggested that one of the major reasons Google Health failed was that it could never get enough data to gain traction--the health providers just wouldn't work with the PHR. At least the open source standards take away some of the technical excuses they have used up to now.

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