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September 27 2014

August 29 2013

Les gens ne recyclent pas ce qui ressemble à des ordures ! - Ars Technica

Les gens ne recyclent pas ce qui ressemble à des ordures ! - Ars Technica
http://arstechnica.com/science/2013/08/people-dont-recycle-things-that-look-like-trash

Pourquoi recyclons-nous de manière erratique ? Selon une étude du « Journal of Consumer Research » menée par Remi Trudel et Jennifer Argo, nous avons tendance à évaluer l’objet. En fouillant des poubelles, ils se sont rendu compte qu’on avait tendance à jeter des feuilles de papier de petit format alors que celle de l’équivalent d’une taille de feuille A4 avaient plus tendance à être proposées au #recyclage. Même effet de taille sur les bouteilles de soda.

Les auteurs concluent qu’il existe plusieurs (...)

#psychologie #cognition #comportement #économiecomportementale #développementdurable #écologie #politiquespubliques #la27eregion

August 19 2013

La morale, un talent de société* | Le Webinet des Curiosités

La morale, un talent de société* | Le Webinet des Curiosités
http://webinet.cafe-sciences.org/articles/la-morale-un-talent-de-societe

Pour une fois, la psychologie expérimentale permet de répondre à une question philosophique : le sens de la morale semble bel et bien inné ! Il semble résulter de la conjonction de deux compétences sociales :

- grâce à notre socialité hiérarchique nous savons nous comparer aux autres membres du clan et nous connaissons nos “droits”. Les chiens et les singes -qui sont également câblés pour une vie sociale hiérarchisée- manifestent comme nous du mécontentement s’ils ne se sentent pas traités équitablement.

- grâce à notre capacité à imaginer ce que l’autre peut ressentir (ce que l’on appelle la théorie de l’esprit) nous sommes inclins à donner aux autres autant qu’ils le méritent. Nous partageons cette “pulsion civique” avec les singes et probablement -ça reste à vérifier- avec les dauphins, certains oiseaux et même les éléphants qui sont eux aussi dotés de la théorie de l’esprit.

[...]

Mais alors, à quoi bon enseigner la morale à nos chères têtes blondes si ça devrait leur être aussi naturel que respirer, boire ou manger ? Et surtout comment expliquer qu’il y ait autant d’incivilités si tout le monde possède la même conscience morale ?

C’est que le comportement moral repose, explique Nicolas Baumard dans un très bon article sur ce sujet, non pas sur le sens du sacrifice pour son groupe, mais sur la notion d’équité.
Un comportement immoral ou incivique s’expliquerait selon lui, non par un manque de morale, mais par le sentiment d’être soi-même traité de façon inéquitable ou bien -cela revient au même- que les autres dérogent au règles en toute impunité.

#morale #psychologie #société #philosophie

August 12 2013

Do we have an instinct for privacy ? – Ian Leslie – Aeon

Do we have an instinct for privacy? – Ian Leslie – Aeon
http://www.aeonmagazine.com/living-together/do-we-have-a-privacy-instinct-or-are-we-wired-to-share

Over time, we will probably get smarter about online sharing. But right now, we’re pretty stupid about it. Perhaps this is because, at some primal level, we don’t really believe in the internet. Humans evolved their instinct for privacy in a world where words and acts disappeared the moment they were spoken or made. Our brains are barely getting used to the idea that our thoughts or actions can be written down or photographed, let alone take on a free-floating, indestructible life of their own. Until we catch up, we’ll continue to overshare.

#vie_privée #internet #surveillance #psychologie

August 09 2013

August 08 2013

Le jeu qui aide les thérapeuthe à discuter avec des ados ayant des problèmes mentaux - Technology…

Le #jeu qui aide les thérapeuthe à discuter avec des ados ayant des problèmes mentaux - Technology Review
http://www.technologyreview.com/view/517561/the-computer-game-that-helps-therapists-chat-to-adolescents-with-m

Même pour un thérapeute, il est difficile de discuter avec des ados souffrant de problèmes mentaux, d’où l’idée de passer par le jeu pour y parvenir. « L’Ile des moucherons » développé par des universitaires anglais est spécifiquement conçu pour faciliter la communication entre les thérapeutes et les adolescents âgés de 10 et 15. Le jeu consiste à explorer une île tropicale où les moucherons symbolisent les pensées négatives... Des rencontres avec d’autres explorateurs permet aux joueurs d’apprendre à (...)

#santé #psychologie #adolescence #jeuxserieux

July 29 2013

Psychology and the Prevention of War Trauma : An Article Rejected by American Psychologist by Marc…

Psychology and the Prevention of War Trauma: An Article Rejected by American Psychologist
by Marc Pilisuk and Ines-Lena Mahr http://www.projectcensored.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Psych-Prevention-of-War-Trauma-Revised.pdf

There is more than one #narrative that guides the services provided by psychology to the military and its soldiers. The dominant narrative is that wars happen and that a peaceful but powerful nation such as the United States responds to the aggression of other nations or groups using military force when diplomacy or other efforts at persuasion are not successful. This view presumes decisions to engage in war emanate from decisions by democratically elected officeholders to protect us. War requires a great mobilization of technology, supplies and soldiers. Soldiers are recruited for such patriotic service and undergo serious physical and mental challenges, some continuing long after the time of service. Within this framework the sacrifices are justified and the building of psychological resilience for soldiers—as described in an entire issue of the #American_Psychologist dedicated to #Comprehensive_Fitness_Training makes perfect sense. “The program’s overall goal is to increase the number of soldiers who grow through their combat experience and return home without serious mental health problems” according to Michael Matthews, a professor with the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership at the United States Military Academy at West Point.

There is however another narrative that casts the contributions and responsibilities of psychology to the military in a different light. In this perspective violent eruptions occur because some people are deprived or displaced and see no non-violent options to improve the quality of their lives. They see control over the resources needed to make their lives better as increasingly centered among a relatively small group of brokers of concentrated power and wealth. It is the decisions of this elite group, according to this second narrative, that necessitate violence and suggest a common root underlying war, poverty and environmental destruction. Resource depletion now causes or intensifies most overt conflicts, and serious global malnutrition affects 925 million people. Such structural violence is neither accidental nor inevitable. Rather it is, in this narrative, a natural consequence of a system inordinately influenced by a small, interconnected network of corporate, military, and government leaders with the power to instill fear, to increase their excessive fortunes, and to restrict information, particularly about their own clandestine dealings. With the predictable benefits of violence going to a small set of corporate and government officials, the recruitment and motivation of soldiers, and of the public, requires a measure of concealment or deception as to who will pay what costs and who will receive what benefits. In this view the sacrifices required from soldiers not only go well beyond what resilience training may prevent, but are not justifiable in the first place. This second narrative calls psychologists to different tasks. They are to draw attention to voices that have been excluded, to clarify the deep psychological and social consequences of the dominant narrative, and to illustrate for people who have been adversely affected, the ways to resolve conflicts without recourse to killing.

The resilience training program flags a larger concern that the discipline of psychology needs to come to grips with the implications of its involvement in facilitating the psychological preparation for war.

#psychologie #états-unis

July 17 2013

Les bases neurologiques des “mèmes” : comment les idées deviennent-elles contagieuses ?

Les bases neurologiques des “mèmes” : comment les idées deviennent-elles contagieuses ?
http://www.internetactu.net/2013/07/17/les-bases-neurologiques-des-memes-comment-les-idees-deviennent-elles-c

Comment les idées deviennent-elles contagieuses ? La thèse comparant certaines idées à des “virus du cerveau” ne date pas d’hier. Dans son livre Le Gène égoïste, paru en 1976, Richard Dawkins avait créé la notion de mèmes, analogues “mentaux” des gènes, qui étaient capables de s’autorépliquer d’un cerveau à l’autre, et qui, à l’instar des créatures vivantes, cherchaient avant tout…

#économie_comportementale #économie_de_l'attention #cognition #neurosciences #psychologie

Reposted bycheg00 cheg00

July 16 2013

Acédie ❝L'acédie fut pour l'Église ce que le burn-out est au monde de l'entreprise : un affect…

Acédie

L’acédie fut pour l’Église ce que le burn-out est au monde de l’entreprise : un affect redouté qui touche l’individu, mais qui sape aussi la foi dans le système, ce qui explique qu’il soit pris au sérieux. Car l’acédie n’est pas une paresse comme les autres. (...)
Elle surprend, parmi les moines, les perfectionnistes de la foi aux tâches réglées et aux prières quotidiennes, qui ne reculent ordinairement pas devant un jeûne supplémentaire ni devant un office plus matinal encore, mais qui, parfois, s’effondrent.(...)
Les Pères du désert, Cassien, saint Jean Climaque, Isidore de Séville, saint Thomas et beaucoup d’autres l’ont étudiée en raison de sa fréquence chez les solitaires ou dans
les monastères. Il faut dire que l’acédie s’emparait des meilleurs éléments et des religieux les plus fervents. Des moines qui n’ont jamais douté, qui semblaient en chemin vers la sainteté, se trouvent un jour fatigués de Dieu. (...)
Bernard Forthomme, dans un impressionnant volume consacré au sujet, parle de « l’acédie comme surtravail ». Il analyse des exemples de ce que les anciens appelaient « le démon du travail » pour montrer que les Pères de l’Église ont apparenté l’acédie à une maladie du « trop », et non pas de l’oisiveté. C’est l’excès de prière qui a raison de la foi.

Global burn-out, Pascal Chabot, Puf, Collection “Perspectives critiques”

#histoire #religion #philosophie #psychologie #danger_travail

July 09 2013

February 05 2012

Langage et analogie. Figement. Argumentation | calenda.revues.org

Colloque international organisé par : Mohamed Bouattour (Université de Sfax), Salah Mejri (Université de Paris XIII et Université de Manouba) et Philippe Monneret (Université de Bourgogne)

 

Parmi les questions sur lesquelles l'humanité se penche depuis qu'elle a appris à penser, l'analogie se distingue par une série de thématisations explicites, récurrentes au cours des siècles, dans des champs aussi divers que le droit, la médecine (en particulier orientale), les mathématiques, la théologie, la psychologie, la philosophie, la littérature ou encore la linguistique, sans compter toutes les sciences qui recourent à une forme ou une autre de modélisation, ni le rôle de l'analogie dans la découverte scientifique ou dans l’évolution des techniques. Reprendre cette question au XXIe siècle, c'est d'abord prendre acte du fait qu'en dépit de multiples tentatives, elle n'a toujours pas fait l'objet d'une unification cohérente, qui permette de relier la capacité cognitive dont dérive l'aisance extraordinaire qu'ont les hommes (ainsi que d'autres espèces animales) de produire des analogies, à l'ensemble des représentations, mentales ou publiques, qui en découlent.

 

// oAnth - original URL -- http://calenda.revues.org/nouvelle22642.html

 

[...]

 

La définition large de l'analogie, qui servira de point de départ à cette recherche, est la suivante : on appellera analogique tout processus qui implique une forme de similarité. Classiquement, on peut en premier lieu distinguer l'analogie binaire, qui repose sur la similarité de deux entités, de l'analogie proportionnelle, qui repose sur une similarité relationnelle entre des éléments composant une entité complexe. Quant à la notion de similarité, elle s'oppose non seulement, du point vue logique, à la différence et à l'identité, qui en sont les deux négations, mais aussi, et sur un autre plan, à une seconde relation fondamentale, la relation de contiguïté. En outre la similarité implique ce que l'on peut simplement (et provisoirement) nommer un "point de vue" : deux entités ne sont jamais similaires que selon une certaine perspective.

 

[...]



February 01 2012

Schundkampf 1 | differentia.wordpress - 2012-01-31

Aus der Neuen Hamburger Zeitung vom 24. November 1906:

In der letzten Zeit haben grauenvolle Raubmorde in der Eisenbahn, in der Stille des Zimmers, Kinderentführungen und andere schwere Delikte die Frage aufgeworfen, welche Ursachen haben diese, trotzdem ein Wohlstand und eine Beschäftigung … herrscht, wie nie zuvor? … Ich glaube schlechte Beispiel verderben auch hierin die Sitten, denn die Theater lebender Phtotografien, die Bioskopbilder usw. verführen direkt dazu, diese Untaten nach den gebotenen … Vorbildern zu vollbringen. Manch schwacher resp. halbstarker Charakter sieht in diesem sogenannten lebenden Photographien und aus dem Kitzel und Sensationslust berechneten Vorführungen das Vorbild zur schreckensvollen Tat.

Reposted from02myhumsci-01 02myhumsci-01

November 12 2011

02mydafsoup-01
Play fullscreen
RSA Animate - The Divided Brain

Uploaded by theRSAorg on Oct 21, 2011 In this new RSAnimate, renowned psychiatrist and writer Iain McGilchrist explains how our 'divided brain' has profoundly altered human behaviour, culture and society. Taken from a lecture given by Iain McGilchrist as part of the RSA's free public events programme. To view the full lecture, go to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbUHxC4wiWk
Reposted byadamski adamski

October 03 2011

02mydafsoup-01
via Huxley Vs. Orwell: Infinite Distraction Or Government Oppression? | Prose Before Hos 2011-08-24


// Originally from Recombinant Records: Amusing Ourselves to Death, adapted from Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business by Neil Postman.

When I read this comic, I am reminded of one of my favorite quotes from Brave New World:

“It’s curious,” he went on after a little pause, “to read what people in the time of Our Ford used to write about scientific progress. They seemed to have imagined that it could be allowed to go on indefinitely, regardless of everything else. Knowledge was the highest good, truth the supreme value; all the rest was secondary and subordinate. True, ideas were beginning to change even then. Our Ford himself did a great deal to shift the emphasis from truth and beauty to comfort and happiness. Mass production demanded the shift. Universal happiness keeps the wheels steadily turning; truth and beauty can’t. And, of course, whenever the masses seized political power, then it was happiness rather than truth and beauty that mattered. Still, in spite of everything, unrestricted scientific research was still permitted. People still went on talking about truth and beauty as though they were the sovereign goods. Right up to the time of the Nine Years’ War. That made them change their tune all right. What’s the point of truth or beauty or knowledge when the anthrax bombs are popping all around you? That was when science first began to be controlled–after the Nine Years’ War. People were ready to have even their appetites controlled then. Anything for a quiet life. We’ve gone on controlling ever since. It hasn’t been very good for truth, of course. But it’s been very good for happiness. One can’t have something for nothing. Happiness has got to be paid for. You’re paying for it, Mr. Watson–paying because you happen to be too much interested in beauty. I was too much interested in truth; I paid too.”

And:

There was something called liberalism. Parliament, if you know what that was, passed a law against it. The records survive. Speeches about liberty of the subject. Liberty to be inefficient and miserable. Freedom to be a round peg in a square hole. //


-------------------------

oAnth:

this entry is part of the OccupyWallStreet compilation 2011-09/10, here.

Reposted byJaanis93zycienakrawedziBIERFICKlmnWiesengrundNehaleniaJasiuuu

September 09 2011

02mydafsoup-01

[...]

(T)hese companies build the appearance of a “social network” to serve as the means by which all contexts and competencies of a social network may be controlled for profit and, whenever there is conflict between sociability and profit, sociability loses.

Ordinarily, this would not constitute a threat to sociability itself; after all, traditionally, this scheme of effort has been known by many names: country club, member-only society, etc; the places that striated a culture or society, mandate and maintain concepts such as “class” while working in opposition to concepts like “class mobility”. (This, mind, is a classic dynamic within humanity.)

However, for the first time in our history, we have companies whose technological presence and degree of proprietary involvement in our primary vehicle of global sociability combines with their fundamentally anti-social motivations result in “social networks” that appear to promote decimation of traditional modes and models of exclusion and the anti-social, and appear to support promotion of “social networks” as the means to do so but, in actuality, are promoting an entirely new era of classism by reshaping the criteria not only for admission to the social arena, but for consideration as being worthy of involvement in the social discourse at large.

[...]

On the nature of “social” and the reality of anti-social networks | BonnieNadri.Com - 2011-09-09

September 01 2011

02mydafsoup-01

The Illusion of Asymmetric Insight « | You Are Not So Smart - 2011-08-21



[...]

(Y)ou are succumbing to the illusion of asymmetric insight, and as part of a flatter, more-connected, always-on world, you will be tasked with seeing through this illusion more and more often as you are presented with more opportunities than ever to confront and define those who you feel are not in your tribe.

[...]

August 20 2011

02mydafsoup-01

Why Net Censorship in Times of Political Unrest Results in More Violent Uprisings: A Social Simulation Experiment on the UK Riots by Antonio Casilli, Paola Tubaro :: SSRN | annot. by oAnth-miscellaneous 2011-08-20 at Scoop.it

Following the 2011 wave of political unrest, going from the Arab Spring to UK riots, the formation of a large consensus around Internet censorship is underway.

 

=============================

// oAnth - 2011-08-20

 

The link to the study is in my case blocked by a firewall.

In the German article at netzpolitik.org (see here via Twitter) you may find further links. The basic study is available as pdf (given here below).

 

------------------------------------------

 

https://twitter.com/#!/02mytwi01/status/104649085587431424

 

RT @netzpolitik - () Warum Internetzensur zu gewaltsameren Aufständen führt. http://t.co/D4DV27a // #study Civil Violence Model #pdf #humsci

 

------------------------------------------

 

Civil Violence Model - Study by Joshua M. Epstein

- http://www.pnas.org/content/99/suppl.3/7243.full.pdf

Source: papers.ssrn.com

July 08 2011

May 07 2011

Computer Scientists Induce Schizophrenia in a Neural Network, Causing it to Make Ridiculous Claims

Researchers testing mental illness figured out how to induce schizophrenic symptoms in a computer, causing it to place itself at the center of crazy delusions, such as claiming responsibility for a terrorist bombing. The results bolster a hypothesis that claims faulty information processing can lead to schizophrenic symptoms.

Computer scientists at the University of Texas-Austin built a neural network called DISCERN, which is able to learn natural language. The humans taught it a series of simple stories, teaching it to store information as relationships between words and sentences — much the same way a person would learn a story.

Then they started again, but cranked up DISCERN’s rate of learning — so it was assimilating words at a faster rate, and it was not ignoring as much noise in the data.

Some mental health experts believe schizophrenics cannot forget or ignore as much stimuli as they should, which makes it difficult to synthesize and process the correct information. This “hyperlearning” phenomenon causes schizophrenics to lose connections among individual stories, losing the distinction between reality and illusion. Dopamine is a key factor in the process of understanding and differentiating experiences.

Telling the computer to “forget less” was akin to flooding the system with dopamine, confounding its ability to discern relationships between words, sentences and events, according to a news release from UT.

“DISCERN began putting itself at the center of fantastical, delusional stories that incorporated elements from other stories it had been told to recall,” according to the news release. In one answer, it claimed responsibility for a terrorist bombing.

The experiment doesn’t prove the hyperlearning hypothesis, but it does lend it additional credence, according to the researchers, who published their crazed computer findings in the journal Biological Psychiatry. It also shows that neural networks can be a useful analogue for the information-processing centers of the brain, according to graduate student Uli Grasemann, who participated in the research.

“We have so much more control over neural networks than we could ever have over human subjects,” he said. “The hope is that this kind of modeling will help clinical research.”

[via ScienceBlog]

Reposted fromSigalontech Sigalontech

April 29 2011

An interview with Jerrold Post in Budapest | Hungarian Spectrum - 2011-04-28

[...]

Péter Zentai of HVG had a fascinating interview with Jerrold Post a couple of days ago. The Hungarian journalist wanted to know whether there is a general portrait of dictators that is independent of time and space.

Post answered in the affirmative. "The psyche of all dictators, terrorist leaders, mafia chiefs has four essential components. The first is a messianic belief in their own destiny. The second is a type of paranoia. The dictator-types blame others for their smallest failures and are constantly trying to find or create enemies. The third is a limited conscience and hence a lack of inhibition that often originates in problems that weren't handled in childhood. And fourth is an uncanny ability to influence and possess the mind and soul of people in their closest circle."

When Zentai inquired about the intelligence level of these dictator-types, Post's answer was that there are some who are clever or intelligent and some who are not, but "almost all of them are half-educated." All dictators believe that their pronouncements are terribly important, while listening to them from the outside one can see the inner contradictions and outright stupidities. Their penchant for creating enemies can also be found in their public speeches where at the center of their ire is their or their country's enemies. Their attitude toward "these enemies" becomes obvious not only in words but also in gestures. For example, they often make their visitors wait or they arrive late for an important meeting only to show who is boss.

[...]

 

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Reposted bypolitik politik
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