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December 12 2013

Creative Commons soll internationale Organisationen erreichen

Die Welturheberrechtsorganisation WIPO hat zusammen mit weiteren Organisationen eine Textfassung der Creative-Commons-Lizenzen vorgestellt, die sich an zwischenstaatliche Einrichtungen richtet. Die Lizenzen bleiben die gleichen, bei Streit ist aber eine außergerichtliche Vermittlung vorgesehen.

Während die von Creative Commons angebotenen Lizenzen gerade einen Versionssprung gemacht haben, gibt es mit den „Intergovernmental Organisation“-Fassungen nun auch eine spezielle Anpassung der Lizenzen, die besonders den Anforderungen zwischenstaatlicher Einrichtungen entgegenkommen soll. Creative Commons hat sie zusammen mit der OECD, der Welturheberrechtsorganisation WIPO, den Vereinten Nationen und anderen internationalen Organisationen erarbeitet.

Die angepassten Fassungen entsprechen vom Aufbau und den Lizenzmodulen – wie „Namensnennung“, „Keine Bearbeitung“ und so weiter – den bereits bekannten CC-Lizenzen und sind mit ihnen kompatibel. Der Unterschied besteht lediglich in einem Detail: der sogenannten Portierung der Lizenzen. Mit den Portierungen werden die Lizenztexte an nationale Besonderheiten angepasst, um besser an das jeweilige Rechtssystem andocken zu können.

In Form der „Intergovernmental“-Lizenzen gibt es eine solche Portierung nun auch für zwischenstaatliche Einrichtungen. Weil internationale Organisationen gleich an mehrere nationale Rechtssysteme andocken müssten, was ihnen nicht immer möglich ist, sehen die „Intergovernmental“-Lizenzfassungen nun einen besonderen Mechanismus vor, mit dem Konflikte gelöst werden können.

Mediation und Schiedsverfahren bei Streit

Organisationen, die ihre Inhalte unter Creative-Commons-Lizenzen veröffentlichen, können mit den „Intergovernmental“-Fassungen ein zwingendes Mediationsverfahren festlegen, dass dann ins Spiel kommt, wenn jemand die Lizenz verletzt. Gerichtliche Auseinandersetzungen sollen so vermieden werden. Führt das zu keinem Erfolg, folgt ein Schiedsverfahren. Für solche Verfahren im zwischenstaatlichen Bereich gibt es bereits Modelle, an die angeknüpft werden kann.

Bis jetzt gibt es die „Intergovernmental“-Fassungen allerdings nur in der CC-Version 3.0, die gerade von der neuen Version 4 abgelöst wurde. Grund dafür ist wohl, dass die Erarbeitung zwei Jahre gebraucht hat, wie der Mitteilung der WIPO zu entnehmen ist. Ein neues Feature aus den 4.0-Versionen haben die „Intergovernmental“-Fassungen aber schon übernommen: Die sogenannte Heilungsklausel, nach der eine Lizenzverletzung nicht für immer zum Verlust der Rechte führt, sondern die Lizenz wieder auflebt, wenn das Problem innerhalb 30 Tagen behoben wird.

Zu den zwischenstaatlichen Organisationen, die Creative-Commons-Lizenzen als Standard für ihre Veröffentlichungen nutzen, gehört zum Beispiel die Weltbank. Auch die Universität der Vereinten Nationen oder die europäische Kernforschungsorganisation CERN nutzen die Lizenzen in bestimmten Bereichen.

September 16 2010

The Distribution of Income in OECD Countries

Richard Green:

While Arrow showed the impossibility of a well defined ordering of social preferences... ...we tend to act as if there is one anyway. That is, we place a lot of focus on GDP per capita when evaluating economic success. By this measure, the US is, of course, successful. By a slightly different measure from the OECD (go to page 37), average disposable income per household, the US ranks second after Luxembourg among the nations measured. Luxembourg has about the same population of Long Beach, so it is hard to worry too much about it.

But a social welfare function that looks at the lowest decile of income is just as legitimate (or perhaps I should say, illegitimate). By this measure, the US ranks 20th among countries measured, which places it toward the bottom of the OECD pack, with levels similar to Greece and Italy.

On the other hand, the top 40 percent of American household are better off than their counterparts in all other countries (with the exception of Luxembourg), reflecting a great deal of affluence across a large number of people. So where to pick? As Arrow would say, that is really impossible.

Here is the chart that he mentions:

Ineq-cross-country-by-income

Here's a bit more detail on the distribution of disposable income (the bars start at the average income of the upper 10% and end at the average income of the bottom 10%, with the average income for each of the other eight deciles marked by horizontal lines):

Ineq-cross-country

As you can see, the US has the widest distribution.

It would be nice to move the bottom of the US distribution up since it's a bit of an outlier for countries with average income in the vicinity of ours. But that might require raising taxes on the wealthy and redistributing income, or at least using the money to try and improve the conditions that lead to this outcome. That would then cause the people at the upper end of the distribution to quit working hard and taking risks, people would stop innovating, and our entire society would devolve into socialism ending our way of life as we know it. So, sorry, nothing we can do.

Reposted from02myEcon-01 02myEcon-01

December 06 2009

No hay tiempo que perder: Firma la Declaracion de Privacidad de Madrid

Más de 250 organizaciones de la sociedad civil, bloggers, activistas, expertos en privacidad, geeks en más de 40 países están instando a los países de todo el mundo que salvaguarden la privacidad, un derecho humano fundamental. Los gobiernos y las empresas están reuniendo mucha información sobre las personas, con muy pocas protecciones. Los nuevos sistemas de identificación, seguimiento y la vigilancia pone en peligro los derechos de los ciudadanos y los consumidores. La coalición de La Voz pública (The Public Voice) están alentando a los ciudadanos de todo el mundo a firmar la declaración de privacidad de Madrid sobre estándares de privacidad para un mundo global. Los miembros de la coalición haran recordar a nuestros gobiernos y corporaciones, en toda oportunidad, en toda reunión a nivel nacional, regional e internacional que deben proteger nuestro derecho a controlar nuestra propia información personal. Act Now: Firma la Declaración de Madrid sobre la privacidad y la proteccion de datos personales, enviando un correo electrónico a privacy@datos-personales.org con los siguientes datos: Nombre: Título / Afiliación: Pais: Opcional: Comparte tus ideas de cómo puedes contribuir a difundir la campaña! ¿Quiénes estan blogueando acerca de la Declaración de privacidad de Madrid?

November 11 2009

Civil Society Groups and Privacy Experts Release Madrid Declaration, Reaffirm International Privacy Laws, Identify New Challenges and Call for Concrete Action to Safeguard Privacy

In a crisply worded declaration, over 100 civil society organizations and privacy experts from more than 40 countries have set out an expansive statement on the future of privacy. The Madrid Declaration affirms that privacy is a fundamental human right and reminds "all countries of their obligations to safeguard the civil rights of their citizens and residents." The Madrid Declaration warns that "privacy law and privacy institutions have failed to take full account of new surveillance practices." The Declaration urges countries "that have not yet established a comprehensive framework for privacy protection and an independent data protection authority to do so as expeditiously as possible." The civil society groups and experts recommend a "moratorium on the development or implementation of new systems of mass surveillance." Finally, the Declaration calls for the "establishment of a new international framework for privacy protection, with the full participation of civil society, that is based on the rule of law, respect for fundamental human rights, and support for democratic institutions." The Madrid Declaration was released at the Public Voice conference in Madrid on Global Privacy Standards. Multiple translations of the Declaration are available. You can still sign the Madrid Declaration until January 28, 2010, International Privacy Day. Please, send your signature to privacy @ datos-personales DOT org

October 21 2009

La Coalizione Internazionale della Società Civile discuterà

degli Standard Globali della Privacy
Madrid, 3 novembre 2009
‘The Public Voice’, la più grande coalizione mondiale della società civile, organizzerà una conferenza a Madrid, Spagna, il 3 novembre 2009, per discutere degli ‘Standard Globali della Privacy in un Mondo Globale’. La conferenza si svolgerà in coordinazione con la 31ª Conferenza Internazionale Annuale dei Garanti della Privacy e della Protezione dei Dati. Interverranno alla conferenza sia alcuni fra i principali attivisti ed esperti della comunità accademica, della protezione dei consumatori e dei diritti digitali e del sindacato, sia funzionari pubblici e rappresentanti del settore privato. Insieme, discuteranno su come mantenere alto l’interesse della comunità globale riguardo ai temi della privacy, e su come promuovere la partecipazione della società civile nei processi decisionali che hanno come obiettivo l’adozione di migliori standard globali di protezione della privacy e dei dati personali. La conferenza inizierà con la rassegna sia dei più recenti sviluppi riguardo la privacy e la protezione dei dati, sia delle principali campagne di attivismo. Stavros Lambrinidis, Vice-Presidente del Parlamento Europeo, è stato inviato a commentare i principali sviluppi in questo campo. La conferenza tratterà anche delle sfide attualmente poste dalle nuove tecnologie e dal alcune pratiche economiche: rappresentanti della società civile e del settore privato discuteranno le implicazioni per la privacy di pratiche quali il ‘cloud computing’ e i motori di ricerca internet. Verranno inoltri discussi i flussi transnazionali di dati nel settore pubblico e privato, dai dati dei passeggeri aerei e le transazioni finanziarie, al sub-appalto di dati personali. Durante l’ultima sessione della conferenza sarà presentata la ‘Dichiarazione di Madrid della Società Civile sugli Standard Globali’. La dichiarazione sarà discussa da funzionari responsabili della protezione dei dati personali dell’OCSE, del Gruppo di Lavoro Articolo 29 dell’UE, degli Stati Uniti e del Canada. Peter Hustinx, Garante Europeo della Protezione dei Dati, chiuderà la conferenza presentando alcune osservazioni finali. La conferenza è patrocinata dall’Agenzia Spagnola di Protezione dei Dati Personali, ed è gratuita per tutti i partecipanti. Il programma, il modulo d’iscrizione e le informazioni pratiche sono disponibili al sito: http://thepublicvoice.org/events/madrid09/ Per informazioni: Katitza Rodriguez, The Public Voice Coordinator, katitza AT epic DOT org

October 10 2009

September 22 2009

On One Web Day: International Civil Society Coalition reaffirmed its commitment to the Civil Society Seoul Declaration on the Future on Internet

Civil Society participants of The Public Voice coalition at the OECD Ministerial Meeting on the Future on the Internet affirmed "that the policy goals for the Future of the Internet should be considered within the broader framework of protection of human rights, the promotion of democratic institutions, and the provision of affordable and non-discriminatory access to advanced communication infrastructures and services. Economic growth should be for the many and not the few. The Internet should be available to all." The coalition called attention to government officials around the world on: Freedom of expression. Freedom of expression is being violated around the globe by state censorship and by more subtle measures such as content filtering, privatized censorship and restrictions on so-called harmful content. We urge governments to defend freedom of expression and to oppose mandated filtering, censorship of Internet content, and criminalization of content that is protected under international freedom of expression standards. Protection of Privacy and Transparency. We reaffirm our support for the OECD Privacy Guidelines as a fundamental policy instrument setting out minimal requirements for the transborder flow of personal data. We call on governments to adopt and enforce data protection laws covering all sectors, both online and offline, and to establish international data protection standards that are legally enforceable. We further urge member states to ensure fairness, transparency, and accountability for all data processing for border security, identification, and decision-making concerning individuals. Consumer Protection. Trust and confidence are critical to the success of the Internet economy. Governments should ensure that consumer protection laws are properly enforced and cover digital products to the same extent that other consumer goods and services are covered. Employment, Decent Work and Skills. We recommend governments promote learning and training opportunities for workers and address the technological and organizational change in the workplace. Promotion of Access to Knowledge. We support open access to government-funded scientific and scholarly works and endorse the OECD Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data. Internet Governance. Internet governance structures should reflect democratic values and be transparent and publicly accountable to users. Global Internet policymaking should involve equal participation of all people, countries, and stakeholders. We call states to support the Internet Governance Forum and to promote the multi-stakeholder process of the World Summit on the Information Society. Promotion of Open Standards and Net Neutrality. Standards-making processes should be open and should encourage competition. This promotes innovation and development. We support the procurement policies that promote open standards, open data formats, and free and open software. We further recommend Countries to oppose discrimination by network providers against particular applications, devices, or content and preserve the Internet's role in fostering innovation, economic growth, and democratic communication. Balanced Intellectual Property Policies. We urge countries to maintain a balanced framework for intellectual property protection that is least intrusive to personal privacy, least restrictive for the development of new technologies, and that promotes creativity, innovation, and learning. Countries should oppose proposals that would deny individuals access to all Internet services and opportunities based on alleged copyright infringement. We are also concerned about the secrecy of the "Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement" (ACTA) treaty process and the possibility of policies that may limit legitimate business activity, the participative web, and e-government service delivery. Support for Pluralistic Media. The Internet is a universal platform for innovation, growth, and the ability of people to express and share their views. New forms of media and new applications are emerging that challenge old paradigms and enable broader public participation. At the same time, dominant Internet firms are moving to consolidate their control over the Internet. Inclusive Digital Society. The Internet should be accessible to all. Governments should ensure that all residents have the means to access the Internet and should provide public Internet access, training and support. Particular attention should be paid to rural, remote and aboriginal populations, as well as the disability community. Cultural Diversity. Governments should promote access to the full range of the world's cultures and to ensure that the Internet economy reflects the true diversity of language, art, science, and literature in our world. The deployment of International Domain Names should be a priority. Background information: OneWebDay: Your Web. Your Day OneWebDay has attracted a global network of partner organizations and individual activists committed to broadening the public awareness of Internet and Web issues while deepening a culture of participation in building a Web that works for everyone. In 2008, OneWebDay organizers documented volunteer-driven events 34 different cities across the world. The Civil Society Seoul Declaration On June 16, 2008, more than 150 participants from 15 countries gathered in Seoul, South Korea, for the Civil Society - Labor Forum "Making the Future of the Internet Economy Work for Citizens, Consumers, and Workers. The event was organized by the Public Voice coalition, the Trade Union Advisory Committee, and the OECD Civil Society Reference group, which includes the Association for Progressive Communications, the Canadian Internet Policy and Public interest Clinic, Consumers Korea, the European Digital Rights Initiative, the Electronic Privacy Information Center, the Internet Governance Project, and the Trans Atlantic Consumer Dialogue. The Civil Society Seoul Declaration was signed by 82 organizations and more than 100 individuals. # Spanish: Translation done by Renata Ávila, Creative Commons-Guatemala # Portuguese: Translation done by Marilia Maciel, DiploFoundation # Korean Translation done by Byoung-il Oh, Jinbonet # Hungarian- Translation done by Inforum
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