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December 25 2012

Journalists, Opposition Thrown Out of Macedonian Parliament Amid Street Protests

On Monday, Dec. 24, the Macedonian capital Skopje was shaken by a violent protest - and a counter-protest - related to the Parliament's approval of the 2013 state budget (en, en).

Youth Radio MOF provided this short summary [mk]

1. The direct motive for the outburst of (institutional and physical) violence was the opposition's blocking of the adoption of the budget in the Parliament, which was conducted through the submission of numerous proposed amendments, a method previously perfected by a junior government partner […]. The opposition proposed a plan of saving EUR 240 million planned for unnecessary expenses and luxury. [The total budget is EUR 2.7 billion.] They also announced the withdrawal of the amendments if the government accepted their saving proposal. The ruling party, however, claimed that by blocking the budget, the opposition was ruining the state and denying funds for the pensioners, social welfare cases, farmers, students, artists… Both sides did not budge, and several protests against the opposition took place in the past few days, demanding its leader to leave politics…

Policeman in Skopje, Macedonia, wipping splashed egg from helmet.

A police officer who received an egg aimed at the opposition protesters. From an extensive hi-res photo gallery by Vanco Dzambaski, CC BY-NC-SA.

The proposed cutting of expenses mainly referred to the new construction within Skopje 2014 project, which earned the city the title of the “Kitsch capital of the Balkans” in the international media, thanks to a widely circulated AP story (en, ro, also it). One of the counter-protests included “the artists,” organized by the government-appointed directors of Skopje's Macedonian-language theaters, ballet, and national folk ensemble. When asked if it was normal for a theater that was supposed to require EUR 4.5 million to actually receive EUR 27 million, with additional EUR 10 million budgeted for 2013, Jelena Zhugic, director of Theater “Comedy” replied [mk]: “Milk and honey also did not flow in the streets of France when they were building their castles.” Social network users quickly drew comparisons with the the infamous pre-French Revolution quote: “Let them eat cake.”

Radio MOF explanation continued:

2. Last weekend, the Assembly President Trajko Veljanovski returned the budget to the PM's Cabinet, which urgently adopted it with slight modifications, and returned it to the Assembly. It bypassed the Finances and Budget Committee, and was placed directly to a plenary session instead. This set a precedent which the opposition deemed “contrary to Constitution, Rules of Procedure and the laws.”

Bloggers TheRealPsmst and Goran Arsov concurred, quoting [mk] the Rules of Procedure and other relevant legislature [mk]. Radio MOF concluded:

3. Supporters of the government and the opposition announced protests in front of the Parliament at the same time. The tense atmosphere with the police buffer in between, both groups exchanged insults and projectiles (stones, eggs, apples, [potatoes]). Around 20 protesters and 11 policemen were injured.

An opposition protester who received a head injury by an object hurled by the pro-government counter-protesters. Photo by Vancho Dzhambaski, CC BY-NC-SA.

One of the government MPs was videotaped [mk] defiantly marching behind the police cordon, making obscene gestures at the protesters and yelling, “Die! Die!”

Amdi Bajram, MP from the government coalition, “addressing” the protesters. Photo by Vancho Dzambaski, CC BY-NC-SA.

At one point, in response to missile attacks, opposition protesters broke the first line of the police cordon and were stopped by force. Photo by V. Dzambaski, CC BY-NC-SA

Meanwhile, inside the Parliament [sq], the security detail threw out the resident journalists, and most of the opposition MPs who tried to physically block the upcoming session. Three of them ended up in hospital [mk]. Then, the new budget was passed with 65 “yes” votes and 4 “against,” out of 123 MPs. The protest dispersed after the news of the adoption of the budget, except for a lone young man who undressed in front of the police and was arrested, unlike a police-approved government supporter.

The unrest in the Parliament included a serious denial of freedom of expression, which some international media covering the events of the day (en, en) have failed to mention.

NGO Civil–Center for Freedom has strongly condemend the violence against citizens, their parliamentarian representatives and journalists [en, mk, sq]:

Chaos and violence took place in Macedonia today. Officers of the security in the Macedonian Parliament acted in an unspeakable manner and physically attacked people’s representatives of the opposition, beating and dragging them through the corridors.

Before the eyes of the Macedonian public and the world, all rules and principles of democracy, the Constitution and the laws have been suspended.


Government officials and the parliamentary majority, security and police authorities, as well as officers of these structures who acted violently must immediately apologize to the Macedonian citizens and take responsibility for their actions.

The Journalists' Trade Union protested [mk], and the Association of Journalists of Macedonia issued the following statement [en, mk, sq]:

The Association of Journalists of Macedonia strongly condemns today's incident in the Parliament, where journalists were forcefully expelled from the “gallery room” from which they were following the plenary session. With this act, the Constitution, which guarantees the freedom of expression and media freedom, was grossly violated.

The authorities who gave the orders for this shameful act have formalized censorship and decided what must and what must not to be reported by the journalists. The forcibly evicted journalists did nothing to cause the reaction of the security, nor was there a legal basis for their removal.

We were removed in order not to witness the removal of the opposition MPs from the sessions. This is a case that should not go unpunished.

For these reasons, the Board of AJM stops all the negotiations with the government until the return of the constitutional order in Macedonia, and until the perpetrators and the authorities of this shameful behavior are not identified and punished according to the law.

AJM will use all the legal mechanisms to protect the freedom of expression and media freedom. Also, we will alert the domestic and foreign public about these events in the Parliament.

Police with dogs. Monuments in background. Skopje, Macedonia. Photo by Vachno Dzambaski, CC BY-NC-SA.

The police in front of the Macedonian Parliament after the protests on Dec. 24, 2012. Photo by Vachno Dzambaski, CC BY-NC-SA.

The mood on the social networks was grim during the day and in the evening, with people expressing disappointment and disgust. A representative pessimistic blog post is listing reasons “Why I would immediately leave this country” [mk].

December 24 2012

Macedonia: Nude Art Twitter Calendar for Charity

Twelve Macedonian women - regular Twitter users - took part in a humanitarian project organized by @IlinaBookbox, two photographers and one designer via the hashtag #ТвитерКалендар (Macedonian for ‘Twitter Calendar'). The resulting nude art calendar was donated to anti-cancer association Borka [wallpapers available via mk, mk, sq]. The original photos are on sale through the exhibition in Lee Cafe in Skopje [mk], and all proceedings will be donated to charity.

Promoting Recycling in Macedonia

The tree makers. Photo by @teksega, used with permission.

Continuing the tradition that started last year (en, mk, nl, es), the Macedonian Twitter community has erected a new Christmas Tree made of plastic bottles (mk, mk, photos 1, 2, 3) in Skopje City Park in order to raise awareness of the importance of recycling. The event was again organized around the hashtag #елкамк (Macedonian for ‘fir tree mk') and open source instructions [mk], announced [mk] three weeks in advance by several bloggers. The tree will be purchased by a local recycling company and the money donated to charity.

November 27 2012

Macedonia: 7th Critical Mass Biking in Skopje on Wednesday

Promotional banner for Critical Mass #7 in Skopje under the motto 'The Streets are for Bikes, Too'

Promotional banner for Critical Mass #7: ‘The Streets are for Bikes, Too'

The 7th Critical Mass [mk] group cycling will take place on the streets of Skopje on November 28 (Wednesday) starting at 5:30 pm, organized via #КМ7 hashtag and the FB event [mk].

November 25 2012

Blogirame Award Distinguishes Macedonia's Top Bloggers and Twitter Users

Macedonian blog aggregator Blogirame [”We blog”] published the results [mk] of their first annual awards, as well as videos [mk] from the ceremony held on November 23, 2012.

According to the popular vote:

(Video by @banekoma.)

Winners in the top Twitter categories include:

Angela/@RumShtangla showing her three awards. Used with permission.

The top hashtag for 2012 is #ЗдравоБоби (Hello Bobby). JovanaTozija explained [mk] that it addresses the issue of “in the past, for a model to say hi to you you'd need a lot of cash, now all you need is Twitter and a publicly expressed wish for sexual relation with her.” The point of this viral campaign, elaborated [mk] Nixon, Inc., was to “show the power of the social media to get a response by a celebrity soul-mate.” This “successful trolling project” was inspired by a real event, according [mk] to RubinBT.

The top tweet for 2012 is by Ina…

“You can freely have fun at my account, it has been blocked!”

November 04 2012

Despite Threats, Macedonian Activists Fight for Fair Energy Law

Members of the grassroots civil initiative AMAN, who are demanding fair energy legislation and an end to state-controlled price hikes in Macedonia, are facing various forms of pressure, including increasing threats.

In the local languages, the word “aman” means ‘a cry' or ‘a plea' and is equivalent to “please, stop.” This grassroots movement against price hikes of state-controlled monopoly commodities (electricity, fuel, central heating) started weekly protests in August. As the price hikes resulted in the increase of food prices, affecting the most vulnerable people first, protests spread from Skopje and Bitola to several other cities - Tetovo, Shtip, Prilep, and Kumanovo.

AMAN protest against price hikes in Bitola, Macedonia

AMAN protests in Bitola. Photo by Energetska efikasnost (Energy Efficiency) blog, used with permission.

At first, the authorities, represented by the Regulatory Commission for Energy, the mainstream media and the unions, ignored the movement. To partly address this issue, AMAN increased social media promotion (hashtag: #АМАН) and held a protest in front of the state Public Broadcasting Service, MTV [mk, sq].

As the authorities' deliberate disregard approach failed, AMAN participants were subjected to various forms of pressure: infiltration by partisan agent provocateurs, hacking and mysterious closing down of their recurrent Facebook event, general threats by passersby [mk], labeling by the PM (which affected the participation of people whose incomes depend on the government), counter-protests by GONGOs, smearing campaigns.

One World SEE reported:

Since the start of the protests, the Government has constantly accused them of being led and working on instructions of the leading opposition party, the Social-Democratic Union of Macedonia (SDSM).

Also, the Government continued with its practice to respond to all civic initiatives and protests against its policies with counter-protests held by its own, loyal, organizations and initiatives. This time, we have the “Burnt by Privatization” („Изгор приватизација“) initiative, which holds parallel protests against the privatization of the power utility company by Austrian corporation EVN during the last SDSM’s term in power.

Earlier this week, on September 25, 2012, the Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Macedonia accused the Regulatory Commission for Energy that its decisions for termination of the cheap daily electricity tariff and the decision to allow increase of prices of electricity and distance heating were adopted on basis of provisions that do not, in fact, exist in the Law on Energy.

At the Oct. 30 press conference, AMAN representatives informed the public [mk: 1, 2, 3; sq: 1, 2] that one of the movement's members had received threats against him and his family by “unknown persons”: they intercepted him in the center of Skopje, tried to interrogate him about other activists, showing him their photos. Obviously, the message was to stop the protests and the current petition to change the Energy Law. The activists asked for the police and other state institutions to quickly find and sanction the perpetrators, and for the PM not to hinder the legislative process.

The protests, however, continue. The activists are using institutional channels and have submitted an initiative to change the Energy Law. Pending the government's approval, they would then need to gather 10,000 signatures required to propose amendments within the Parliament.

Pressure on the activists continues, too. While the perpetrators of the reported intimidation attempt are still at large, a new incident occurred during the 12th protest on Nov. 3. Radio MOF reported [mk] that a group of counter-protesters threatened and tried to chase the AMAN protesters away, but the police prevented further escalation.

Sonja Ismail, one of the protesters, wrote [mk]:

Today at noon we traditionally gathered in front of the Energy Regulatory Commission. But we were not alone. They came spontaneously. They parked a jeep on the sidewalk [nearby]. They came out of the jeep with the spontaneously-made counter-protest props. [About 50 meters further] they were joined by around 60 more. Camera crews from Kanal 5, Sitel and MTV spontaneously appeared, too. They filmed these people who spontaneously put masks representing the face of Radmila Shekerinska [“a parody” targeting an opposition MP]. There were no more than 30 of us. A young man approached us, and when asked who he was, he said he was from the Union of Young Forces of [VMRO-DPMNE]. He told us to disappear in 20 minutes. He also shouted obscenities while returning to his group. P.S. There were many police officers present and they assumed the proper position [between the two groups]. Their commander assured us that they came to stop any violent incidents. [OSCE] representatives were also present.

November 02 2012

Macedonia: Documenting Online Protest Against Censorship

On October 9, nearly 200 Macedonian websites participated in a day-long blackout, protesting the censorship-inducing provisions [mk, en, sq] that the Government “sneaked in” within the Draft Law on Civic Liability for Defamation, presented as approved by the EU and COE. Activists from Free Software Macedonia, who provided the JavaScript code for the initiative, also documented the Blackout initiative [mk] on their wiki.

October 17 2012

Macedonia: Fashion and Style Blogs

A cow and a young woman

Photo: Dijana Kalić-Velkova, used with permission.

Skopje Casual blog, run by “3 girls, showing off their daily inspirations and casual fashion from the streets of Skopje,” posted [mk] a list of Macedonian fashion/style blogs. Some of them, like Diario creativo and Sanja's Burgundy Blog, post original content in English. So does Angela Dissected, not featured on this list.

October 02 2012

Macedonia: Skopje Zoo Improvements Continue

A bear in Skopje Zoo. Photo by Vasil Buraliev, used with permission.

“Attention! Electric fence” sign and a bear at Skopje Zoo. Photo by Vasil Buraliev, used with permission.

Vasil Buraliev blogged [mk] about further improvements of the Skopje Zoo, noted in 2010 by Global Voices [en, mk, sq, nl, zh, zh, es]. (more…)

September 11 2012

Kosovo: Prizren Comic Book & Cartoon Festival

Poster announcing Vesna Nichevska-Saravinova's participation at 8th Comic Book & Cartoon Fest in Prizren

A poster for the 8th Comic Book & Cartoon Fest in Prizren

Macedonian artist Vesna Nichevska-Saravinova blogged about her participation in the Prizren Comics Festival, organized by the Kosovo Comic Book Artist Association, Xhennet Comics [sq]. Four out of 15 featured artists at the festival were from Macedonia, Eddie Rebel reports [mk], alongside colleagues from Italy, Turkey, Cyprus, France, Kosovo, Bulgaria, and Bosnia.

August 31 2012

Macedonia: Demanding Triumphal Welcome for Paralympics Champion

Olivera Nakovska-Bikova. Promo photo, via

Macedonian social media users are calling [mk] for a state-sponsored celebration for Olivera Nakovska-Bikova, who won a gold medal in shooting at the Paralympic Games finals in London, after setting a world record during the qualifications.

So far, successful athletes in individual sports, especially female, such as the 2011 European karate champion Natasha Ilievska, haven't received a heroes' welcome granted to the national team that came in 4th at the EuroBasket (defeating Greece along the way).

Many (1, 2) say it's shameful that none of the TV stations began their evening news with Nakovska-Bikova's achievement. While Macedonia has a very modest Olympic showing, its paralympians won [mk] gold (in 1992) and silver (2004) medals.

August 29 2012

Macedonia, Bulgaria: Social Media Users Help Expose Forgery

A fact-checking intervention - a joint effort by Macedonian and Bulgarian social media users - has helped independent journalists expose forged documents used as lure for suspicious humanitarian donations.

During the previous weeks, Macedonian social media users were agitated after learning about alleged mistreatment of Eva Ilievska, a baby girl with malfunctioning heart, who was a subject of an online donation campaign a few months ago. Dozens of online portals and other media relayed the appeal for more funds, using titles like “Scandalous - Little Eva was Denied Health Care in Bulgaria - Due to Lack of Money for the Operation.” The people were donating money via designated humanitarian phone numbers and to the family's bank account, and indignantly shared such links [mk] via Facebook, calling upon their friends to contribute, too. These articles contained photos of the baby, who was born in April, and a scan of the alleged official document issued by a Bulgarian clinic.

A text message by the Foundation T-Mobile for Macedonia, informing that the user has donated 100 denars for Eva Ilievska's treatment. On top of this sum, the state takes +18% from the citizens as VAT (approx. EUR 2).

However, when a Facebook user from Bulgaria noticed this appeal, she quickly realized that the scanned document contained many factual inadequacies: the name and address of the hospital were wrong, the telephone numbers were strange, and, most of all, the text in Bulgarian looked as if it was not written by a speaker of the language, but appeared to be an automated online translation. Other Bulgarians (including Global Voices' Rayna St. and Veni Markovski) confirmed these facts [mk, bg] through Facebook comments, while their Macedonian friends tagged several journalists in order to involve them in the discussion. Over the weekend, the cat was out of the bag on a larger scale.

Immediate further research [mk] by professional journalist Meri Jordanovska from 24 Vesti [”24 News”], who contacted the child's father as well as the head of the Bulgarian clinic, revealed that the document was indeed a forgery. In fact, the girl's operation had already been completed and she was back in Skopje for further treatment. Margarita Conzarova, M.D., the director of the Sofia-based Clinic for Child Diseases and Heart Surgery, confirmed that she had not issued such a letter. In fact, the EUR 25,000 had been paid by the Macedonian State Healh Fund (80%) and the parents (20%), presumably using part of the previously donated funds. The Bulgarian surgeon said that a new operation on the child was not to be conducted for at least a year.

Dozens of Macedonian portals and other media relayed the news [mk]. According to unofficial information in Jordanovska's article, over EUR 20,000 had been donated by concerned citizens.

In the meantime, the Ilievski family members have been issuing contradictory statements. First, they were asking for more money via the this Facebook page [mk], then they were quoted claiming that the page was run “by the community” or that it had been hacked, and that they did not know who was asking for money, using appeals claiming that little Eva was to have a surgery in the next few days, and that EUR 3,000, then EUR 2,100 were still lacking.

“Who Wanted to Get Rich Over Little Eva's Heart?” The story made it to the front page of the Fokus daily.

An article by another web-savvy journalist, Miroslava Simonovska of the Fokus daily, republished on the Plusinfo portal, complemented the information, and showed [mk] that the father had been using the same documents to ask for money directly via e-mail. The director of the Skopje Clinic for Child Diseases, Aspazija Sofijanova, M.D., has filed criminal charges and the police started an investigation [mk] into possible fraud.

Macedonian citizens often donate money via text messages, as they believe that the three national mobile operators have checked the claims of the people who beg for money in order to solve health issues. So far, no statement by the mobile operators has been issued to the effect that they would return the money if the investigation proves fraud. Journalists claim that, to their credit, the operators do not take a cut from the proceedings, but transfer the whole sum to bank accounts of the people in need, and the 18% VAT to the state budget.

One of the participants in the Facebook discussion wrote about the baby:

…Again, the biggest loser is the most innocent person…

Meri Jordanovska concluded her second article this way:

It remains unclear for what purpose did Eva's parents gather money and who is hiding behind the August 23 document, which claims that the Bulgarian clinic is asking for more money for treatment. The Ministry of the Interior is on the move to clear up this case, so that the citizens could regain trust in calls for humanitarian donations.

August 25 2012

Macedonia: Crowdsourcing Against Gender-Based Violence

Ushahidi blog's current “Deployment of the Week” selection [en, mk] is React! Be Safe! (”Реагираj!”), an online platform against gender-based violence in public spaces [en, mk, sq], launched by the think-tank Reactor, initially covering the Skopje municipalities of Centar and Čair.

August 17 2012

Bulgaria: The Red Army Supports Pussy Riot

On the day of the verdict in the Pussy Riot trial, Russian embassies worldwide are seeing demonstrations in support of the incriminated punk band members. The Red Army Monument in the capital of Bulgaria, Sofia, has joined in: a picture of it with some of the soldiers wearing Pussy Riot-styled hats has spread on social networks this morning. The Macedonian outlet publishes a short post [mk] comparing this political art expression with the previous one, when the soldiers were painted as comics characters.

August 13 2012

Russia: “The True Blasphemy” - Slavoj Žižek on Pussy Riot

Russian collective “What to do?” published an essay by Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Žižek, who considers Pussy Riot “conceptual artists in the noblest sense of the word: artists who embody an Idea,” and fight against the cynicism of power-mongers who strive to return Russia to the tsarist level characterized by Leon Trotsky (1905) as “a vicious combination of the Asian knout [whip] and the European stock market.” The text has been translated into various languages [en, ru - middle of page, it, sr, sr, mk, gr] and reprinted by bloggers and progressive portals throughout Europe.

August 07 2012

Macedonia: Devastation of Skopje Aqueduct Continues

On Facebook and on her blog, archeologist Vasilka Dimitrovska shared recent photos by Toni Mandzukovski, raising the alarm about the continuous destruction of the ancient Skopje Aqueduct, neglected by the authorities and used as a source of building material by the local population. The title of her post [mk] - “Let's build an older and more beautiful Aqueduct” - refers to the infamous statement by a Serb leader during the 1991 bombing of the Croatian city of Dubrovnik. Only three outlets have relayed the news so far: the Macedonian-language Fokus and MKD, and the Albanian-language

August 06 2012

Italy, Macedonia: Funny (and Inappropriate) Country Name Translation

Macedonian portal Press24 published [mk] a photo posted by a Facebook user who discovered that instead of Macedonia, a display with telephone country codes at Milan airport featured the words “Fruit Salad” - which is synonymous with “Macedonia” in Italian, Spanish and some other languages. It comes out as literal translation via Google Translate.

August 02 2012

Macedonia: Introducing Struga Poetry Evenings

Portuguese filmmaker André Soares published a short video documentary about the Struga Poetry Evenings, an international poetry festival that has been held annually for half a century, since 1962, in the town of Struga, Macedonia (the official site).

The film features statements by poets Vladimir Martinovski from Macedonia, a Chinese exile Bei Ling, Rati Saxena from India, Corey Marks from the United States, Siim Kera from Estonia, Mimoza Sali from Albania…who also talked about the global situation with poetry and read their works in various languages.

While explaining the circumstances of being forced to choose between jail and exile due to disagreement with the regime, Bei Ling says that his homeland is no longer China, but the Chinese language. Curiously enough, one of the most famous quotes by the renowned Macedonian poet and linguist Blaže Koneski (1921-1993), inscribed on his recently erected monument [mk], is “our language is our homeland.”

The festival is one of the crucial elements of the official, state-supported culture, and its opening is usually attended by top political personages, like the Minister of Culture, Prime Minister and/or the President. As such, it has not proven conducive to promotion of domestic dissent, as attested by the critical post [mk] on the 2009 edition by activist blogger and poet Vnukot. In 2011, he specifically returned [mk] to publicly read his poem about the murder of Martin Neshkovski, the event that incited the grassroots protests against police brutality a year ago.

Over the years, Macedonian bloggers have been mentioning the festival by quoting Wikipedia data and starting discussions about domestic poets such as Koneski, Mateja Matevski or Jovan Koteski (1932-2001), who attended in 1964 and 1981, or publishing Macedonian translations of works by foreign participants, such as the Japanese Shuntaro Tanikawa, the French Pierre Béarn, and Russian Vadim Fedorovič Terehin (Ru.wikipedia).

Journalist Vasko Markovski used his blog to publish a reportage [mk] on the park of poetry in Struga, where the trees planted by many world renowned poets grow side by side.

July 28 2012

Africa: Contemporary African Artistry Online

Usanii Afrika is a blog that showcases contemporary African artistry: “Usanii Afrika (meaning Artistry Africa in Swahili) is a blog born out of passion. Innately creative herself, blogger, Kirsty Macdonald has had a life long love affair with the arts and self expression.”

May 19 2012

Macedonia: Graffiti Art in “Times of Revived Antiquity”

A short documentary on the Macedonian graffiti scene in the context of the state-sponsored art/construction boom, made by two female scientists and bloggers–Vasilka Dimitrovska and Ilina Jakimovska–has been shown at the renowned archeological conference Buffalo TAG 2012.

Entitled “Lions, Warriors and Graffiti Artists: Counter-Culture in Times of Revived Antiquity”, the documentary juxtaposes (an important visual arts theory word!) information about the vigorous efforts of the government to impose new, polished classicist/baroque visual identity on the center of the Macedonian capital through the Skopje 2014 project (which features bronze lions), with interviews of people from the graffiti scene.

A co-author, archeologist Dimitrovska, wrote this [mk] on her blog, injecting a disclaimer often heard by people who dare to speak in public in Macedonia:

We made this documentary… in order to document with love part of the graffiti which disappeared or are about to disappear due to the new urban concepts implemented in our country, primarily in Skopje. The project has no political dimension, nor did we intend it to have any political connotation. This small project on Macedonian graffiti was made with modest finances, and we intended to present–without any censorship or montage of statements–the voices and opinions of the graffiti artists who shaped or are still shaping the visual part of this subculture, which is punishable by the laws but is also used (not abused) by the political class in power.

In the film, the interviewed artists also feel the need to decline any interest in political life. They talk about being torn between the threat of punishment if caught “writing” on their own (EUR 50 at least), and becoming a sell-out for commercial reasons or in local government projects, which sometimes involve co-opting graffiti artists to legally adorn specified public buildings. They also mention a quickly forming generation gap within the subculture.

The other co-author, ethnologist Jakimovska wrote this [mk] on her blog in 2007, in a post referencing the famous scene from the film Life of Brian:

It might sound incredible, but the graffiti are - folklore! Regardless of whether they convey messages through drawing or text, the graffiti, for those who make them and those who read them on city walls, are a form of expression and communication. If you have something hidden deep inside you, something that aches and burns you, write it on the wall, and it will speak it… Some of my favorites from Skopje include “A woman is not a woman unless she's a woman,” “Thank God I'm an atheist”…

In the past, other bloggers such as Alexx [mk] or Django [mk] wrote about Skopje graffiti. The artists featured in the documentary do not have online presence on the public internet, but sometimes publish photos of their work within Facebook.

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