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August 01 2011

South Korea: Several Thousands Protested against Massive Layoffs

The “Hope Bus” protest took a place in Busan, the nation's largest port city, on July 31. About 3,5oo people from all over the country, including civic activists and labor groups, demonstrated against massive layoffs by Hanjin Heavy Industries. One of influential citizen journalists, MediaMongu tweeted [ko] photos of minor clashes between conservatives and progressives.

July 20 2011

Italy: Social Innovation Competition with €10,000 Prize

The EUCLID network is inviting social innovators from any country to submit entries to a competition about how to solve one of six social challenges in Naples, Italy. The winning idea will be implemented by the winners together with local partners using a €10,000 prize.

July 19 2011

Russia: Putin Wary of WTO

Kyle Keeton of Windows to Russia argues that Russian Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin, is right in his wariness towards membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO), fearing that this might hurt the country's economy.

July 17 2011

Russia: Defence Paradoxes

Streetwise Professor discusses development of Russian military technology and weapons procurement and the paradoxes they pose to the Russian Armed Forces.

July 13 2011

Chile: 40 Years of Nationalized Copper

As Setty writes in his blog, July 11 marked “the 40th anniversary of Chile’s nationalization of the copper industry.” Codelco, (Chile's state-owned copper mining company) workers went on strike that day “to protest the ‘undercover privatization' of the company”, Setty explains.

Russia: Infrastructure Falling Apart

Yuri Mamchur of Russia Blog argues that Russian infrastructure is literally falling apart due to desperate lack of reinvestment, while profits continue to go abroad, making much critical functions of society rely on things made half a century ago.

July 10 2011

Brazil: Report Reveals Unsustainable Practices of Biofuel Industry

Biofuel has been acclaimed as the best way out for the world’s struggle for energy resources. It has also been pointed out as a ‘green' alternative which can reduce carbon emissions. An analysis made by the NGO Reporter Brasil [pt], last May, of the Brazilian ethanol chain of production reveals however that biofuels can have a high socio-environmental cost:

O estudo relata as irregularidades socioambientais, bem como os destinos das exportações, de grupos como Cosan (Join-venture with Shell), Greenergy International, São Martinho, Louis Dreyfus Commodities, Carlos Lyra, Copertrading, Moema/ Bunge e Noble. Há casos de trabalho escravo, excesso de jornada de trabalho, falta de registro em carteira, despejo irregular de resíduos, queimadas não permitidas e uso de terra indígena para produção de cana.

The study reports socio-environmental irregularities produced by groups such as Cosan (Join-venture with Shell), Greenergy International, São Martinho, Louis Dreyfus Commodities, Carlos Lyra, Copertrading, Moema/ Bunge e Noble and the destination of their ethanol. There are cases of slavery, excessive working hours, non-registered workers, illegal waste dumping, illegal burning and use of indigenous land for sugar-cane production.
The Social cost of Brazil's biofuels expansion: The indigenous Guarani Kaoiwa community of Laranjeira Nhanderu live on the side of the BR-163. They were pushed off their land 14 months ago to make way for more sugarcane plantations. 21-10-2010 Photo by Annabel Symington copyright Demotix

The Social cost of Brazil's biofuels expansion: The indigenous Guarani Kaoiwa community of Laranjeira Nhanderu live on the side of the BR-163. They were pushed off their land 14 months ago to make way for more sugarcane plantations. 21-10-2010 Photo by Annabel Symington copyright Demotix

Dirty labor, dirty environment

According to Reporter Brasil, data released by the organization Comissão Pastoral da Terra (Pastoral Land Comission) [pt] highlights that 10,010 labourers were set free when working in sugar-cane plantations in Brazil between 2003 and 2010. Available in English and Portuguese, the study does not dismiss the effort of the federal government and Sugarcane Industry Association (UNICA) to tackle those socio-environmental problems, but it reports that no policy has refrained companies caught using illegal practices to export ethanol.

Cattle farming and sugar cane account together for 59% of the cases of slavery in Brazil between 2003 and 2010. Reporter Brasil Report in English/pp.5

Cattle farming and sugar cane account together for 59% of the cases of slavery in Brazil between 2003 and 2010. Reporter Brasil Report in English/pp.5

The official blog of the Ibero American University Foundation (FUNIBER) indicates [pt] that:

Se a intenção era obter combustíveis mais limpos, então estamos cometendo erros em algum ponto da cadeia de produção, porque no processo estão recorrendo à derrubada e queimada de florestas para ganhar terreno para o monocultivo de variedades que possam ser exploradas na indústria de biocombustíveis. O corte e a queima aumenta as emissões de CO2, inclusive em maior quantidade que o produzido pelos automóveis.

If the intention was to obtain cleaner fuels, we're making mistakes at some level of the chain of production, as forests are slashed and burned in the process to make way for a variety of monocultures that can be exploited in the biofuel industry. The cutting and burning increases CO2 emissions, including a greater amount than that produced by automobiles.

Another issue raised on the biofuel production is that it can compromise water quality and undermine the agrarian reform which is still to be accomplished in the country. The article ‘Monopólio da Terra e os Direitos Humanos no Brasil’ (Land Monopoly and Human Rights in Brazil) [pt] written by the Director of the Network for Social Justice and Human Rights, Maria Luisa Mendonça, points out:

Most of sugar-cane plantation in Brazil is still located in the State of São Paulo where 60% of the harvest is made by machine. This has not prevented, however, the pre-harvest burning process. Royal Olive (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Most of sugar-cane plantation in Brazil is still located in the State of São Paulo where 60% of the harvest is made by machine. This has not prevented, however, the pre-harvest burning process. Royal Olive (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

(…) Segundo um estudo da National Academies Press a qualidade da água subterrânea, dos rios, do litoral e das nascentes pode ser impactada pelo crescente uso de fertilizantes e pesticidas usados nos agrocombustíveis. (…)

O governo elegeu o Cerrado como prioritário para a expansão das lavouras de cana para a produção de etanol. O cerrado é conhecido como “pai das águas”, pois abastece as principais bacias hidrográficas do país. Essa região apresenta uma topografia favorável, com terras planas, de boa qualidade, e farto potencial hídrico, além de abrigar cerca de 160 mil espécies de plantas e animais, muitas ameaçadas de extinção. O avanço do monocultivo de cana e soja ameaça este bioma, que pode desaparecer completamente em alguns anos, caso se mantenha o atual ritmo de destruição, causando a morte de alguns dos principais rios do país.

(…) According to a study run by the National Academies Press the quality of rivers, coastlines and springs may be impacted by the increasing use of fertilizers and pesticides used in biofuel production. (…)

The government has chosen the Cerrado as a target for the expansion of ethanol sugar-cane production. The Cerrado is known as the “father of waters” because it supplies the main basins of the country. (…) The advance of soy and sugar-cane monocultures has threatened this biome, which may disappear entirely in some years, if the current rate of destruction continues, killing some of the major rivers of the country.

What future for land?

Felipe Amin Filomeno, on the blog Outras Palavras (Other Words), claims that ‘Brazil and Mercosul have started fighting for their lands' [pt] and argues that the rush for land due to the biofuel ‘fever’ in Brazil and in other so called developing countries has put the price of land up, bringing about another problem as a consequence: the death of small farms run by families:

(…) enquanto estrangeiros compram terra que, na maior parte das vezes, será usada para monoculturas de exportação, muitos cidadãos nacionais (incluindo comunidades indígenas) ainda demandam acesso à terra como meio de subsistência familiar. (…)

Entretanto, não são apenas os pequenos produtores rurais de países latino-americanos e africanos a enfrentar problemas decorrentes da onda mundial de aquisição de terras. Na medida em que a indústria de biocombustíveis se expande, a terra para produção de soja e cana-de-açúcar fica mais disputada. Grandes produtores de soja no Brasil, por exemplo, ao mesmo tempo em que veem o valor de suas propriedades aumentar, também veem seus custos crescerem, especialmente aqueles que arrendam terras para produzir. Terão que disputar com estrangeiros um recurso nacional.

While foreigners buy land that in most cases, will be used for monocultures for export, many nationals (including indigenous communities) still require access to land as a means of family subsistence. (…)

However, it is not only small farmers in Latin America and Africa who are facing problems arising from a wave of land acquisition in the world. As the biofuel industry expands, disputes over land to produce soybeans and sugar cane increase. Major producers of soybeans in Brazil, for example, while they see the value of their properties increase, they also see their costs grow, especially those who rent land to produce. They will have to fight for national resources with foreigners.

This post was proofread by Kevin Rennie.

July 08 2011

The Great Reset: Why tomorrow may not be better than today

Growing up in the waning days of the Carter administration, I remember a societal malaise that was pervasive to the point of toxicity. A common sentiment then was that our best days were behind us.

How did we get there? Most fundamentally, a paralyzing period of stagflation meant double-digit interest rates and no economic growth.

However, it was also fed by an energy crisis; the first signs of Islamic fundamentalism's assent; and a lengthy political hangover that followed a scandal in the White House.

But as they say, it's darkest before the dawn, and in a flash, the malaise was gone.

To be sure, the next 30 years brought with it booms, bubbles and bursts, but the general sense, and one's expectation, was for a better tomorrow.

Today, however, I'd argue that our present no longer sits at such a simple, logical place where tomorrow is necessarily better than today.

Simply put, our society is undergoing a "great reset" where for many the future is a very scary place.

Understanding The Great Reset

Systemically speaking, these are confusing times. The recession is technically over, and you can tangibly see that fact from an economic growth perspective.

Yet, two-and-a-half years later, one has to ask, "Where are the jobs, and equally worrying, where are the drivers of job growth?"

Now I don't have to tell you that a jobless recovery is an unacceptable indicator of systemic success when you consider the sheer size of the unemployed, not to mention, the under-employed.

Similarly, is there any question that a certain chunk of society is getting dis-proportionally squeezed by the system on numerous fronts?

Case in point, over the past couple of years I have heard a troubling number of stories from people that I know well. More often than not, these are highly educated, historically successful people that have gone from flush to crushed, simply because their geographic region or industry has lost its footing, or because they've hit a certain age where they are no longer desired as a named employee.

1099 is the new W-2

1099

The uncomfortable truth, in fact, is that everyone is now an entrepreneur, whether they like it or not. 1099 is the new W-2, which says something when you see how even basic services like insurance become exponentially more expensive when written as an individual policy vs. a company policy.

What type of hit does that represent to our national health, both metaphorically speaking and literally, in the pocketbook?

Homeless children: do we really care?

Along these lines, I was drawn to tears watching a recent CBS "60 Minutes" report about the growing ranks of homeless children, and what that life is like for all parties involved.

It is gripping stuff in that it raises tough questions about what kind of society we want to build, and how much we feel pain when others needlessly suffer.

This all seems so abstract until you ponder its effect in broader terms. Case in point, in the book "Outliers" Malcolm Gladwell brilliantly shows how those coming of age during the depression never fully recovered; yet those coming of age in the boom times of a Post-WWII America flourished, making this a generational imperative.

Tough questions, weak answers

This is the Great Reset, and an entire generation's outlook for a better tomorrow lies in the balance with it.

Remember the audacity of hope? It's been replaced with cynical, political pragmatism where big corporations necessarily get stronger on the premise that trickle down and laissez-faire are universal absolute truths.

Equally troubling, there's a sense of there being a protected class — seen in many forms across taxation, lobbying, generally accepted conflicts of interest, and low-touch regulation and enforcement.

Consider that it is no longer assumed to be fundamental that there be basic codicils protecting individuals from intentional harm, predatory behavior and malfeasance (read Matt Taibbi's damning "The People vs. Goldman Sachs" for more fodder on this topic).

Nor do the penalties meet the crime when this class crosses the line. Why not commit the crime if you don't fear doing any time?

As a result, the rest of us are getting the shaft. Health Insurance is more expensive and offensively priced than ever. It feels almost evil that we went through the Obama Care discussion, only to "win" universal coverage that results in insurance providers simply upping their premiums 40% or more, in some cases pushing 2-3 rate increases in a single year!

Want to really mess with people's minds? Threaten the availability of their health care coverage, both for themselves and their families.

On a lighter note, at least we aren't suffering from inflation in this recovery. Yes, I am being ironic.

So what's changed this go around?

I remember when I started my first career in real estate back in 1988, and the savings and loan crisis was in full force (it was a much smaller version of our current banking imbroglio).

Then, three things came about in its aftermath:

  1. Real structural change.
  2. A functioning marketplace for getting rid of non-performing assets.
  3. Readily identifiable perpetrators went to jail.

Not this time. Not only did the perpetrators not go to jail or even lose their jobs, but they got raises and got to keep their bonuses. This, even though the "profits" were disproportionately derived from a guaranteed arbitrage gifted by the U.S. government.

Even worse, most would agree that the reforms to the system were largely cosmetic, with the clean up of toxic assets occurring behind the public curtain with even more financial engineering.

Netting it out, we went through the worst financial crisis since the depression, and the only one who went to jail was Bernie Madoff — the guy who stole from the rich! That should tell you something.

Looked at holistically, it raises some troubling questions:


  • Is "Too Big to Fail" just a black hole that sucks our economy dry? You can certainly see the ripple effect at the level of state and local governments.


  • Does it matter if we have a middle class? Do we really care? Are our national priorities right?


  • What happens to all of the places in America that don't find real industry on the other side of The Great Reset?


  • What if it turns out that the Google Economy is a better destroyer of wealth and jobs than a creator of the same? Apocryphal, sure, but it's a fair question, given the number of industries that have been wiped out over the past decade.


  • Do we miss the video store, record store, book store, consumer electronics, newspaper, yellow pages and whatever intangibles they brought? What do we lose as a society when any brick and mortar business whose product or service can be digitized or improved by logistics (ease and convenience of access), or sold less expensively online simply goes away?


  • Is this the end of serious politics (real solutions, real compromise), and is the wall between government and private industry gone forever? Check out "Inside Job" and "Food, Inc." to see how two different industries have been re-shaped by this dynamic.


  • In the bigger picture, can we "afford" cheap Walmart goods, or does the race to the bottom actually destabilize our way of life by destroying domestic industries and permanently funneling those jobs overseas?


  • Would the Earth stop spinning if the Amazon sales tax exemption was lifted, putting local retail on closer footing with Amazon? Wouldn't this seem to lead to more local sales?


  • What "upside surprises" might occur from a prolonged period of creative destruction in terms of our consumption patterns, happiness index and/or new industry growth?


Some of this raises uncomfortable truths about the values of a society, how that society holds its leaders accountable, whether opportunity is expanding or contracting, and whether the value that our economic base is creating is sustainable or illusory.

Similarly, it begs the question: what is the proper role of government? For example, is it possible that in the same way that the government provided the funding that led to the Internet and, before that, our national highway infrastructure, that our leaders could seed new types of infrastructure investment in transportation, energy, health and education?

A sobering thought. Take a moment and watch this chunk of Eisenhower's farewell speech where he warns about the rise of the military industrial complex, and the threat that it represents to society and our way of life (while acknowledging it's essential inevitable).

Now, replace "military industrial" with "Wall Street" and "mega corporations" and ask yourself if history is repeating. It's kind of disturbing.

Like any diagnosis, the patient (and its guardians) has a say in the treatment. But ignoring the fact that The Great Reset is upon us in the hopes of not upsetting the apple cart of a strong stock market (the Skinner Box of our age) is akin to letting cancer metastasize to avoid the pain that treatment might bring.

Photo: Reset switch by renaissancechambara, on Flickr


Related:

July 06 2011

Bahamas: Saving the Forests

“Ever since the pine forests of the Bahamas were logged during the first 60 or so years of the last century, their ultimate survival has been in jeopardy due to conflicts with agricultural and commercial development”: Blogging at Bahama Pundit, Larry Smith says that “a new Forestry Act passed last year could change that.”

July 04 2011

South Korea:Hanjin Labor Workers' Struggle Intensifies

As clashes between Hanjin Heavy Industries and its labor workers have continue to intensify, more net users have joined online protests by posting and retweeting photos of violent clampdowns. Jae Hee
consolidated tweets and news reports about the struggle in his Storify story.

June 30 2011

Uruguay: Controversy Over Open-Pit Iron Ore Mining Project

A project to build an open-pit iron ore mine in Centro Chato - a village of 3,144 inhabitants according to the 2000 census [es] - in central Uruguay has divided Uruguayans. While some see it as an opportunity for employment and economic growth, others are concerned about the environmental consequences and question whether the country will actually benefit from the mine’s profits.

As reported by AFP at the beginning of June:

The Aratiri project, owned by Zamin Ferrous, a London-based minerals company, will cost an estimated $2.5 billion (1.7 million Euros), the largest mining project ever in South America, and equivalent to more than six percent of Uruguay's gross domestic product.

For the past two years, the company has been permitted to prospect for iron on 120,000 hectares (460 square miles) of land around the village of Cerro Chato in the center-east of the country.

The report continues:

In Uruguay the sub-soil belongs to the state, and it has asked farmers to let the company use their land to hunt for iron ore.

For relatively meager compensation, Claudia Perugorria allowed the mining company's digging machines onto her 47 hectares (116 acres), where she raises about 30 cows and sheep. Today, her pastures are scarred with traces of tires, craters and holes where animals may stumble and injure themselves.

March against Aratiri on May 15, 2011. Image by Gonzalo Useta, Flickr user Gonzak (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

March against Aratiri on May 15, 2011. Image by Gonzalo Useta, Flickr user Gonzak (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

El Pueblo Frente a la Minera Aratiri (The People Against the Aratiri Mine) [es], a blog that opposes the venture and posts articles, reports and other media about the project, states:

Como uruguayos preocupados en el desarrollo verdadero, la salud ambiental y humana y el derecho de la población a opinar y participar de los procesos de decisión que afectarán directamente sus vidas y medio de supervivencia, nos preguntamos: ¿cómo se conjuga el Uruguay Natural al que apuesta el gobierno con un emprendimiento minero de tal envergadura?, ¿cuán grande será el beneficio en términos económicos para nuestro país si se tienen en cuenta el daño social y ambiental irreversibles?, ¿qué pasará con esas tierras una vez que la empresa se retire?, ¿esto está incluido en los cálculos?

As Uruguayans concerned about real development, environmental and human health and the right of people to express their opinions and participate in the decision processes that will directly affect their lives and means of survival, we wonder: How does the ‘Natural Uruguay’ the government is pushing coincide with a mining project of this magnitude How big is the benefit in economic terms for our country if we take into account the irreversible environmental and social damage? What will happen to the land once the company withdraws? Is this included in the calculations?

Supporters of the project cite economic development as one of the project’s potential strengths. Felix Obes Fleurquin in Equinox Fin de Semana [es] writes:

Estoy a favor de este proyecto, y de todo proyecto que nos saque o nos ayude a salir de la pobreza […]

Hay riesgos con la mineria y hay muchos riesgos con la mineria a cielo abierto, eso no cabe duda, como los habia con las papeleras, pero esos riesgos hay que afrontarlos […]

I am in favor of this project, and of every project that will help take us out of poverty […]

There are many risks in open-pit mining, there is no doubt about that, like there were with paper mills, but those risks must be faced […]

On Sunday June 26, farmers and neighbors of Cerro Chato marched against the project. The blog Observatorio Minero del Uruguay [es] explains that most of the protesters:

vive y trabaja en algunas de las 120.000 hectáreas pedidas por la empresa para prospección y en las que, por tanto, enfrentan dificultades para planificar su actividad agropecuaria a futuro

live and work in some of the 120,000 acres requested by the company for exploration and, therefore, face difficulties in planning their future farming activities.

The day before, on Saturday June 25, the company's employees and other supporters of Aratirí marched along the same streets defending the project. The blog Aire Libre [es] shares audio and photos of the two protests.

Most Twitter users commenting on Aratirí seem to oppose the project, although there are a few exceptions, like the user @Uruguay_Mejor, who writes:

En principio, estoy a favor del puente #LagunaGarzon, de #Aratirí y del desarrollo del #Uruguay. También quiero mayor control de DINAMA…[Dirección Nacional del Medio Ambiente]

In principle, I am in favor of the #LagunaGarzon bridge, of #Aratirí and of the development of #Uruguay. I also want greater control of DINAMA…[National Directorate of Environment]
"I will not sell the rich patrimony of the 'orientales'", José Artigas. Image by Flickr user Frente Aratiri (CC BY-SA 2.0).

"I will not sell the rich patrimony of the 'orientales'", José Artigas. Image by Flickr user Frente Aratiri (CC BY-SA 2.0).

But journalist, lawyer and writer Graziano Pascale (@grazianopascale) shares a common concern:

@MBBATLLISTA // los extranjeros cada vez msas ricos con el hierro uruguayo

@MBBATLLISTA // foreigners getting richer with Uruguayan iron ore

Later he tweets [es]:

Quien controla el hierro controla el Uruguay..Al manejar 3.000 millns de dls anuales Aratiri será un estado dentro del estado.

Whoever controls iron ore controls Uruguay..By managning 3,000 million dollars annually Aratiri will be a state within a state.

Ricardo Berois (@rberois) refers to President José Mujica’s announcement of a second company - Gladiator Resources (Ferro Minas S.A. in Uruguay), from Australia - that seeks to extract iron ore from Rivera:

Mujica dice que hay otra empresa a parte de Aratirí ! Entonces a nacionalizar el hierro si quiere más guita como dijo

Mujica says there is another company apart from Aratirí! Then let’s nationalize iron ore if he wants more money like he said

Marcelo Bacigalupi (@Cr_Bacigalupi) writes:

EL DEBATE DE ARATIRI ES ESTERIL. HAY QUE PROHIBIR LA MINERIA A CIELO ABIERTO. HAY QUE CUIDAR EL 1/2 AMBIENTE. EL CAPITAL ESTA EN LA CABEZA.

The Aratiri debate is sterile. Open pit mining must be banned. The environment must be protected. Capital is only in our heads.

On YouTube, noalamegamineriaUR (no to mining Uruguay) [es] posts a video which informs about the consequences of a project like Aratirí and also shows marches against the mine:

Uruguayan newspaper El Observador [es] reports that environmental impact studies for Aratiri will be ready in 18 months. Until then, we can expect the conversation to continue on the streets and on social networks.

Bermuda: The Attitude/Economics Equation

Politics.bm says that 30 years after tourism's heyday, “Bermudians are wondering where all the tourists went” and fears that the same thing will happen to the country's stake in international business; Vexed Bermoothes echoes his concern about Bermuda's economic outlook, saying: “At the rate we are going, we may soon have a 1998 sized economy that is struggling to support the masssive debt taken on during the past few years.”

Japan: Real Voices, Real Japan

An Enligh-language website called Real Voices, Real Japan documents “the business environment and recovery in post-quake Japan.” Its purpose is to “keep foreign business communities up to date on the Japanese recovery and enables decision-making based on accurate, locally-sourced information.”

June 29 2011

South Korea: Hunger Strike at Temple

Yoosung Enterprise's listed workers went on a hunger strike at Jogye temple. Moon Yong-min (@yasangmin) tweeted photos of the protest. About 500 workers had been staging demonstrations since mid-May after wage negotiations broke down.

June 28 2011

Uruguay: In Cerro Chato Citizens Protest in Favor and Against the Aratirí Mining Project

Citizens of Cerro Chato in central Uruguay are divided: over the weekend manifestations took place both in favor and against the Aratirí mining project. The blog Aire Libre [es] posts photos and audio of the protests.

June 27 2011

Honduras: Dam Project on UNESCO World Heritage in Danger Site Gets Little English Media Attention

RAJ, in Honduras Culture and Politics, says English language media have given little attention to the construction of a dam in the Rio Platano Biosphere Reserve, “a project of the current Honduran administration, acting against the protests of the indigenous peoples of eastern Honduras, who have not been consulted as they should have been under the UN Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and ILO 169, both international agreements signed by previous Honduran governments.”

South Korea: Labor Workers Fight Against Police and Corporation

Hanjin Heavy Industries have violently clamped down its union protest. Twitterer @pmtsjc posted photos of how company-hired gang cut rope to drag down workers protesting on crane top. The clash, which ignited over unfair mass lay-offs, has continued for over a month now.

June 17 2011

Angola: President's Daughter with a Handful of Business

Considered by Forbes one of the nine richest women in Africa, Isabel dos Santos, the eldest daughter of the angolan President Eduardo dos Santos, is satirically described by journalist Orlando Castro as the “Mona Lisa of Angolan Kingdom“, for the mysterious “unfolded wealth and ease of doing business”.

June 16 2011

El Salvador: Anti-Mining Activist Killed in Cabañas

Tim's El Salvador Blog reports that another anti-mining activist in Cabañas, “where conflict over proposed gold mining continues”, has been killed. Voices From El Salvador also blogs about the news.

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