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January 26 2012

Pour une épistémologie élégante et claire - Pascal Engel sur France Culture


Sorte de vade mecum, ou d’aide-mémoire mais approfondi, sur de grandes questions comme la nature de la découverte, la probabilité, le réalisme et l’instrumentalisme, les expériences de pensée, la nature des entités mathématiques, ou les objets quantiques voire les valeurs et les idéaux du savant.

// oAnth - original URL --  .franceculture.fr 2012-01-23


Jugendbuch: Ein Türöffner in die Welt der Philosophie


Ein Philosophiebuch, das uns philosophieren macht! Der französische Autor Oscar Brenifier wagt in seinem neuen Buch erfrischende Gedankensprünge.

 

// oAnth - original URL  | Zeit.de 2012-01-25


See it on Scoop.it, via manually by oAnth - from my scoop.it contacts

The back of Berlusconi: Is this the end of populism in Europe?

Luigi Guiso, Helios Herrera, Massimo Morelli, 25 January 2012

What good might come from Europe’s crisis? Profligate governments in Italy and Greece, while pandering to the masses, have left their countries with crippling debt. This column draws parallels with Latin America and argues that the current hardship may sound a death knell for populism in southern Europe, as it has elsewhere.

Full Article: The back of Berlusconi: Is this the end of populism in Europe?

----------------
 
// oAnth - IMHO extremely weak, but an outstanding example, how to miss a good chance to characterise the turn from media orientated populism  to media orientated strict authoritarianism.
Reposted from02myEcon-01 02myEcon-01

January 25 2012

Mohamad Kamel Al-Qalioubi :"Le peuple, les intellectuels et les militaires"

"Une blague égyptienne raconte qu’un homme assis dans un café griffonnait sur une feuille de papier. Un passant lui a demandé : qu’est-ce que vous faites ? Il a répondu : j’écris une lettre à mon frère. Le passant, surpris, a répliqué : mais vous ne savez pas écrire ! Il a répondu : mon frère ne sait pas lire non plus !Je ne sais pas pourquoi cette blague me rappelle étrangement la relation entre les intellectuels et un large secteur de la population. Elle me rappelle cet énorme fossé qui existe entre ceux qui écrivent parfois et qui griffonnent souvent, et ceux qui ne savent ni lire, ni déchiffrer le griffonnage.

La situation actuelle est fort décevante. Les intellectuels utilisent des moyens de communication modernes comme Internet. Ils emploient des slogans grandioses : dignité, liberté, égalité sociale, etc. Malgré cela, les premières élections intègres de l’histoire contemporaine de l’Egypte ont vu la victoire des partisans de l’Etat religieux, arriéré et moyenâgeux. Le monde a connu les Etats religieux au Moyen Age. Ils ont par la suite disparu avec tous leurs défauts et leurs vices." (publié dans Al-Ahram Hebdo)

 

 

// oAnth - original URL - hebdo.ahram.org.eg 2012-01-25/31



02mydafsoup-01

Post SOPA, What Else Is Out There?

Imagine when the oil runs out, and this all goes away.
Post SOPA might be slightly wishful thinking, because the industries that paid for the bill are not going to back down any time soon. Perhaps they’ve realised they’re at least going to need to be slightly more subtle about wanting control of the internet. (Although as long as Chris Dodd is speaking for the MPAA, subtlety doesn’t look like it’s going to be an option.) They will be back. But there are others about, trying similar. So what’s there to worry about?

(more…)

Reposted fromdarinrmcclure darinrmcclure
02mydafsoup-01
02mydafsoup-01

David Cameron calls for reform of European court of human rights | Law | The Guardian

Prime minister to accuse court of unnecessarily overturning judgments reached in credible national courts


[...]

Amid anger in Britain at last week's decision of the court to block the deportation of the Islamist cleric Abu Qatada to Jordan, the prime minister will on Wednesday accuse the court of undermining its reputation by unnecessarily overturning judgments reached in credible national courts.

[...]


Puerto Rico: Vigilance over SOPA & PIPA

Dondequiera says of the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the Protect Intellectual Property Act (PIPA): “Mark my word, this issue is not dead. More like the living dead, a zombie issue, if you like. Many companies…believe that the only way to kill the intellectual property rights legislation is to out innovate Hollywood and deliver solutions that make their demands obsolete. I wish them the best of luck.”

Finnisches Umschlagdesign




Jahresbericht der finnischen Erdölfirma Neste, 1961

(Gefunden bei hollyhocksandtulips.tumblr.com)

Reposted fromglaserei glaserei

January 24 2012

02mydafsoup-01
Play fullscreen
Serdar Somuncu liest aus dem Tagebuch eines Massenmörders - Mein Kampf (Komplett) [HD]erdar Somuncu liest aus dem Tagebuch eines Massenmörders - Mein Kampf (Komplett) [HD]
Reposted fromcygenb0ck cygenb0ck viam68k m68k

Relisons Theodore Kaczynski, Quand le chaos d’internet dispairait il ne reste plus que le nouvel état totalitaire | singularite.wordpress - 2012-01-20

Megaupload est fermé, le p2p est mort, le partage privé en cours de destruction, hadopi aura le nombre 3, ACTA PIPA, SOPA gagneront … et rien n’arrette la machine, aucun gesticulement de l’état civil, des associations et des militants.Ils ont tout le temps, ils ont le pouvoir,
Vous n’avez plus de poids dans la société, ils n’ont plus besoin de vous pour du travail, vous n’avez même pas le droit d’etre syndiqué dans le tertiaire majoritaire.

 

 

// oAnth - original URL


January 23 2012

Après SOPA et PIPA aux États-Unis, ACTA arrive au Parlement européen

Paris, 23 janvier 2012 – Après l'impressionnant mouvement d'opposition aux draconiens projets de loi anti-partage SOPA et PIPA, en discussion aux États-Unis, le Parlement européen entame ses travaux sur leur équivalent international : ACTA, l'accord commercial anti-contrefaçon. Les citoyens de toute l'Europe doivent lutter contre cet accord illégitime, voué à remettre en cause la liberté d'expression en ligne, ainsi que l'accès à la connaissance et l'innovation au niveau mondial.

Demain, la commission « développement » du Parlement européen (DEVE) tiendra son premier débat sur le projet de rapport pour avis1 relatif à ACTA, présenté par le rapporteur Jan Zahradil2, un conservateur euro-sceptique de la République Tchèque.

Ce désastreux projet de rapport pour avis est trompeur en ce qu'il tente de justifier des mesures répressives extrémistes pour protéger un régime dépassé du droit d'auteur, des brevets et du droit des marques3.

Plus inquiétant encore, la version de travail du rapport fait complètement l'impasse sur les très nombreuses critiques émises contre ACTA4, venant non seulement d'ONG défendant l'accès aux médicaments, comme OXFAM ou Health Action International, mais également des principaux partenaires commerciaux de l'UE.

Étrangement, le projet de rapport pour avis ne remet pas en question le bien-fondé d'ACTA, et n'émet aucune critique sur la manière dont il a été négocié. La commission DEVE trouve-t-elle normal que des fonctionnaires non-élus proches des lobbyistes de l'industrie négocient de mesures pénales sans véritable contrôle démocratique ? Ou que les pays émergents et en développement aient été totalement exclus du processus ?

Le projet de rapport pour avis DEVE doit être amendé pour refléter les problèmes majeurs soulevés par l'ACTA. Même l'étude commanditée par le Parlement européen lui-même reconnaît qu'ACTA ne peut être accepté en l'état5.

« Encouragé par les même lobbies extrémistes que PIPA et SOPA aux États-Unis, ACTA est une initiative globale visant à protéger des industries rentières qui dominent l'économie mondiale. Le projet de rapport pour avis présenté par M. Zahradil en commission DEVE néglige tous les problèmes cruciaux posés par ACTA : son absence de légitimité démocratique, la vision dépassée du commerce international qu'il promeut, son impact sur l'accès aux médicaments dans les pays en développement, mais aussi sur la liberté d'expression et l'innovation de par le monde. Les membres du Parlement européen, à commencer par la commission en charge du développement, doivent prendre pleinement en compte ces différents problèmes et rejeter ACTA une fois pour toutes. Les citoyens doivent agir pour s'assurer que le Parlement européen reçoit le message. », déclare Jérémie Zimmermann, porte-parole de La Quadrature du Net.

S'informer et agir contre ACTA

Pour savoir comment agir contre ACTA maintenant, rendez vous sur notre page de campagne dédiée.



Vous pouvez ajouter cette vidéo à votre site, faites un simple copier/coller du code HTML suivant :

<iframe src="http://mediakit.laquadrature.net/embed/716?size=medium&sub=fr_FR" 
style="width: 640px; height: 500px; border: 0; overflow: hidden" scrolling="no" frameborder="0"></iframe>

Vous pouvez également partager cette vidéo sur YouTube : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=citzRjwk-sQ
et sur Dailymotion : http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xlz8g0_say-no-to-acta_news

La procédure ACTA au Parlement européen

  • La commission Commerce International (INTA) du Parlement européen est la principale commission travaillant sur ACTA.
  • Les commissions Affaires Juridiques (DEVE), Libertés Publiques (LIBE) et Industrie (ITRE) seront les premières à voter sur leurs rapports pour avis.
  • Ces derniers seront envoyés à INTA pour influencer son rapport final, qui sera ensuite transmis à l'ensemble du Parlement européen pour lui recommander de voter pour ou contre la ratification d'ACTA.

Voir la fiche de procédure d'ACTA : http://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/file.jsp?id=5924982.

Costa Rica's Online Community Joins Fight Against SOPA and Censorship

Following the virtual strike against the the United States' Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the subsequent shutdown of Megaupload, a file-sharing website, Costa Rica's online community is no longer staying out of the fight against Internet censorship.

On January 17, Costa Rican blogger community TicoBlogger [es] announced its support for the fight [es] led by Wikipedia (which “turned off” its English page for 24 hours).  TicoBlogger published the following statement [es]:

Porque somos una comunidad unida de personas que piensan diferente, pero creemos firmemente en el derecho que tiene cada uno de nuestros miembros de expresarse libremente es que desde el día de hoy y mañana, representativamente nos uniremos a Wikipedia, para hacer una lucha simbólica en contra de SOPA  y PIPA.

Los visitantes de cualquier blog de ticoblogger, se encontrarán mensajes en contra de la Censura de Internet, y el contenido parcialmente bloqueado en la primera visita.”

Logo against SOPA. Taken from Ticoblogger.com

Because we are a united community of people who think differently, but we firmly believe in the right that each one of our members has of freely expressing him or herself, and starting from this day forward, we are joining Wikipedia to form a symbolic fight against SOPA and PIPA.

Visitors to any blog on ticoblogger will find messages against Internet Censorship and partially blocked content on the homepage.

Various blogs pertaining to the TicoBlogger network joined the protest, re-posting the statement, censoring parts of their posts or contributing their own reasons to fight against SOPA, like El Alumbrado Público [es], whose author asserts:

Como bloguero, no puedo estar a favor de una ley que busca privar a la población mundial de información, entretenimiento, y sobre todo de cultura y conocimiento.”

As a blogger, I cannot be in favor of a law that looks to deprive the world of information, entertainment, and above all, of culture and knowledge.

On his own behalf, Julio Córdoba, author of Ciencia Ficción affirms [es]:

Internet ha crecido por hombres y mujeres que libremente comparten sus ideas. La recreación, conocimiento y amistad nacional e internacional es uno de los grandes frutos de la herramienta. Son los menos quienes violentan derechos ajenos y soluciones equivocadas solo atentan contra el espíritu mismo de la red. Hoy, como miembro de ticoblogger, este blog se une a la protesta contra SOPA.

The Internet has grown because of men and women that freely share their ideas. National and international recreation, knowledge and friendship are some of the greatest results of this tool. Those who force alien rights and flawed solutions only undermine the very spirit of the web. Today, as a member of ticoblogger, this blog is joining the protest against SOPA.

Another of the collective's blogs, Conejitos Suicidas [es], shared an excerpt that derechoaleer.org [es] elaborated upon, which explains how SOPA can affect users even outside of the United States. With respect to this, they cite [es]:the following:

si bien la ley sólo regirá en territorio estadounidence, al concentrar ese país la mayor parte de la infraestructura de la red, casi todos los servicios y sitios que utilizamos diariamente se verán afectados: Youtube, Wikipedia, Google o Twitter, como ejemplos.

Por otro lado, Estados Unidos aloja servicios básicos de la red, como el control sobre los dominios genéricos (.com, .net, .org) que aunque pertenezcan a sitios fuera de su territorio, a partir de su aplicación podrán ser inhabilitados desde Estados Unidos, sin considerar el sistema judicial del país afectado, según la campaña “anti SOPA” publicada por el sitio.”

If the law will truly only govern on U.S. territory, upon concentrating the majority of this country's web infrastructure, almost all of the services and sites that we use daily will be affected: Youtube, Wikipedia, Google, or Twitter, to name a few.

On the other hand, the United States houses basic web services, such as control over generic domains (.com, .net, .org) that, while belonging to websites outside its territory, after its application can be disabled from the United States, without considering the judicial system of the affected country, according to the “anti SOPA” campaign published on the website.

The news of the FBI's shutdown of Megaupload and Anonymous' counterattack against the U.S. government (closing the FBI website, among others) also generated commotion on social networks in Costa Rica.

As such, Twitter users were swift to react.  Heidy Murillo (@Sancarleña77) [es] wrote:

El FBI tiene el olfato político del un oso de peluche, cerrar #Megaupload después de #StopSopa fue una provocación gacha. #OpMegaupload #SDP.

The FBI has the political instinct of a teddy bear, to close #Megaupload after #StopSopa was a terrible provocation. #OpMegaupload #SDP.

In response to this outlook, the author of El Alambrado Público expressed the opinion [es] that:

Una gran parte de la Internet, tal cual la conocemos hoy, ha desaparecido. Miles de blogs y foros quedaron inservibles. A comenzar de cero, ¿nada más eso queda? ¿Entenderían mi punto si pasara lo mismo con Taringa?

El contenido de entretenimiento es una mínima parte del gran error que cometió el Departamento de Justicia Estadounidense. No se trata de velar por el bienestar económico de Hollywood o Universal Music; se trata de garantizar y facilitar el acceso al conocimiento, a la cultura y a la información a la población mundial. Decenas de tutoriales libres, documentales de libre distribución, fotografías, documentos culturas e históricos han desaparecido”.

A huge part of the Internet, as we know it today, has disappeared. Thousands of blogs and forums were left unusable. We have to start from zero, what else is left? Would you understand my point if the same thing happened to Taringa?

Entertainment content is a small part of the huge mistake that the U.S. Department of Justice has committed. It's not about watching over the economic well being of Hollywood or Universal Music; it's about guaranteeing and facilitating access to knowledge, culture, and information to the world. Dozens of free tutorials, freely distributed documentaries, photos, cultural and historical documents have disappeared.

02mydafsoup-01

[...]

Auf dem 28C3 warnte Cory Doctorow in seinem Vortrag vor dem "kommenden Krieg gegen universelle Computer" (deutsche Transkription von Christian Wöhrl). Nach Doctorows Ansicht besteht ein massives wirtschaftliches Interesse daran, universelle Computer, die jede beliebige Software ausführen können, abzuschaffen – so, wie sich derzeit die Unterhaltungsindustrie Computer wünscht, auf denen man Filme, Musik, Bücher und Zeitschriften zwar konsumieren, aber nicht kopieren und weitergeben kann. Angesichts der fortschreitenden Computerisierung aller Lebensbereiche, spekuliert der Blogger, sei der derzeitige Kampf ums Copyright nur der Beginn einer langen Auseinandersetzung um universelle Computer.

Die aktuellen Entwicklungen, die sich im Kontext der Einführung von Windows 8 und der UEFI-Funktion Secure Boot im PC-Markt abzeichnen, lassen diese Befürchtungen durchaus berechtigt erscheinen. Mit Secure Boot, für ARM-Rechner mit Windows 8 verbindlich vorgeschrieben und auch für die x86-Welt auf der Agenda, könnte die Zeit zu Ende gehen, wo der Eigentümer eines PC selbst entscheiden kann, welches Betriebssystem und welche Software er auf seinem Rechner laufen lässt.

[...]

Die Woche: Freie Software gegen die Entmündigung der Anwender | heise open 2012-01-19

January 22 2012

Le Verger n°1 (site Cornucopia): Rabelais | Fabula

Le premier numéro du Verger, la revue du site Cornucopia, vient de paraître. Intégralement consacré à Rabelais et plus particulièrement à Gargantua et au Quart Livre, voici les articles qu'il propose :

 

Sommaire du premier bouquet

* INTRODUCTION, par Claire Sicard (U. Paris-Diderot), Adeline Lionetto-Hesters (U. Paris-Sorbonne), Anne Debrosse (U. Paris-Sorbonne) & Aurélia Tamburini (U. Paris-Sorbonne).

 

Section 1 / Gargantua

* Claude La Charité (UQAR - Université du Québec à Rimouski), "Rabelais lecteur de Politien dans le Gargantua".
* Nathalie Hervé (U. Nantes - U. Besançon), "Insertions et inscriptions : une étude métrique des poémes du Gargantua".
* Nancy Frelick (University of British Columbia - Canada), "Gargantua et les leurres du discours alchimique". (à venir)
* Maria Proshina (U. Tours François-Rabelais), "La contribution des régionalismes à l'effet réaliste dans Gargantua".

 

Section 2 / Le Quart Livre

* André Tournon (U. de Provence), "Dérapages ludiques dans le Quart Livre".
* Aya Kajiro (Société japonaise pour la promotion de la science), "Décrire l'invisible dans l'épisode des paroles gelées du Quart Livre".
* Louise Millon (U. Paris-Sorbonne Nouvelle), "Voyage et bêtes curieuses dans le Quart livre".
* Pascale Mounier (U. Lyon 2), "Le pronom relatif 'qui' et ses emplois dans le Quart Livre".
* Nicolas Correard (U. Nantes), "Les « Histoires vraies » du « Lucien français » : de la poétique de l’incredulité au regard moraliste du Quart Livre".

 

Section 3 / Gargantua et le Quart Livre

* Bérengère Basset (U. Toulouse le Mirail), "Les anecdotes plutarquiennes dans l’oeuvre de Rabelais : quelques propositions de lectures".
* Barbara Bowen (Vanderbilt University - Nashville, Tennessee, Etats-Unis), "Women in Rabelais's 'Chronicles'".
* Julien Verger (U. Bordeaux 3), "Réflexion comparatiste sur l'écriture digressive de Rabelais".

 

Section 4 / Ouverture & prolongements

* Aline Strebler (médecin, U. Paris-Descartes) et Adeline Lionetto-Hesters (U. Paris-Sorbonne), "Rabelais médecin dans le Gargantua". (à venir)
* Ivana Velimirac (poète, traductrice, U. Paris-Sorbonne), "Sur Stanislav Vinaver, traducteur de Rabelais ou quand Gargantua et Pantagruel se mettent à parler serbe". (à venir)

 

Articles issus de communications prononcées lors de la matinée d'étude Gargantua à destination des élèves de Terminale L et de leurs professeurs, le 3 décembre 2011 à l'Université Paris-Diderot :

* Franck Bauer (U. Caen), "Rabelais humoriste ?" (sous réserve - à venir)
* Chantal Liaroutzos (U. Paris-Diderot), "Rabelais et le vulgaire". (à venir)
* Claire Sicard (U. Paris-Diderot), "Picrochole au miroir de Charles Quint". (à venir)
* Alice Vintenon (U. Paris-Ouest Nanterre), "Vrais et faux hiéroglyphes dans Gargantua".

Responsable : Numéro dirigé par Claire Sicard, Adeline Lionetto-Hesters, Anne Debrosse et Aurélia Tamburini

 

 

// oAnth - original URL -


January 21 2012

Knowledge naturalized and socialized | understandingsociety.blogspot 2012-01-19

There has been a field of philosophy for quite a long time called "epistemology naturalized." (Here are good articles on naturalized epistemology and evolutionary epistemology in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.) Putting the point simply, the goal of this field is to reconcile two obvious points:
  • Human beings are natural organisms, with cognitive faculties that have resulted from a process of natural selection.  All our beliefs about the world have been created and evaluated using these natural and biologically contingent faculties, generally in social interaction with other knowers.
  • We want to assert that our beliefs about the world are rationally and empirically supportable, and they have a certain probability of being approximately true.
The first point is a truism about the knowledge-producing organism.  The second is an expectation of what we want our beliefs to accomplish in terms of their relationships to the external world.

One of the earliest exponents of naturalized epistemology was W.V.O. Quine in "Epistemology Naturalized", included in Ontological Relativity (1969). Here is a definitive statement of his approach:
Epistemology, or something like it, simply falls into place as a chapter of psychology and hence of natural science. It studies a natural phenomenon, viz., a physical human subject. This human subject is accorded a certain experimentally controlled input -- certain patterns of irradiation in assorted frequencies, for instance -- and in the fullness of time the subject delivers as output a description of the three-dimensional external world and its history. The relation between the meager input and the torrential output is a relation that we are prompted to study for somewhat the same reasons that always prompted epistemology: namely, in order to see how evidence relates to theory, and in what ways one's theory of nature transcends any available evidence...But a conspicuous difference between old epistemology and the epistemological enterprise in this new psychological setting is that we can now make free use of empirical psychology. (82-3)
What are those cognitive faculties that the human organism possesses thanks to our evolutionary history?  Here are several that are important for belief formation.  We have perceptual abilities; we can observe objects and their sensible properties.  We can form concepts that serve to organize our thoughts about the world. We can identify patterns among cognized events.  We can reason deductively and inductively, allowing us to explore the logical relationships among various of our beliefs. We can formulate causal hypotheses about what factors influence what outcomes.  And we can create hypotheses about unobservable structures and properties that are thought to explain and generate the patterns we identify in the sensible world. These capacities presumably have natural histories and, presumably, cognitive gaps. So how can what we know about the human organism's cognitive capacities illuminate the rational warrant of the belief systems that we create?

Experimentation is a key part of belief formation, at least when our beliefs have to do with causation.  We may think that a certain mushroom causes insomnia.  We can design a simple experiment to attempt to test or validate this hypothesis: Identify two representative groups of persons; design a typical diet for everyone; administer the mushroom supplement to the diet of one group and withhold it from the second "control" group; record sleep patterns for both groups.  If there is an average difference in the incidence of insomnia between the two groups, we have prima facie reason to accept the hypothesis. If there is no difference, then we have reason to reject the hypothesis.

So what is the "social" part of knowledge creation?  In what sense does our understanding of knowledge need to be socialized? This is the key question giving rise to the various versions of the sociology of knowledge and science considered in recent posts. It is plain that social influences and social interactions come into virtually every aspect of the "naturalistic" inventory of belief formation offered above. Perception, concept formation, hypothesis formation, theory formation, reasoning, and belief assessment all have social components.The cognitive frameworks that we use, both in everyday perception and learning as well as in specialized scientific research, are socially and culturally informed. This seems to be particularly true in the case of social knowledge, both ordinary and scientific.

So we can add an additional bullet to the two provided at the start about the conditions of knowledge:
  • Belief systems have substantial social underpinnings in the form of division of labor in belief acquisition, socially shared institutions of inquiry, and socially shared (and contested) standards of belief assessment.
Here are a handful of ways in which knowledge is socially conditioned and created:

(1) We form beliefs or interpretations about the motives and reasons for other persons' behavior. These interpretations are formulated in terms of concepts and expectations that are themselves socially specific -- honor, shame, pride, revenge, spite, altruism, love.  And this is an important point: the actor him/herself has internalized some such set of ideas, which in turn influences the behavior.  This means that action is doubly constructed: by the actor and by the interpreter.

(2) We form beliefs about institutions -- the family, the mayor's office, the police department, the presidency. These beliefs are deeply invested in a set of presuppositions and implicatures, which are themselves socially specific.

(3) Knowledge gathering and assessing is inherently social in that it depends on the cooperative and competitive activities of groups of knowledge workers. These may be communities of scientists, theologians, or engineers. Disagreements are inherent in these social groups, and the embodied norms and power relationships that determine which belief systems emerge as "correct" are crucial parts of the knowledge formation process.

(4) We give weight to certain standards of reasoning and we discount other standards of reasoning.  Some of us give credence to magical claims, and we attach some evidentiary weight to statements about magical connections; others disregard magical claims and arguments. These disagreements are culture-specific. (Martin Hollis, ed., Rationality and Relativism, considers a lot of these sorts of questions.)

(5) Standards and definitions of "evidence" and "reason for belief" are socially variable and plastic. Moreover, there is likely to be more variance in these areas in some zones of belief than others. We may find more unanimity about procedures for assessing causal statements about common observable circumstances than about theoretical hypotheses, and even less for assessing beliefs about the likely effects of social policies.

"Naturalizing" and "socializing" knowledge is important because it allows us to investigate the concrete processes and practices through which human beings arrive at beliefs about the world.  The continuing challenge that the philosophy of science raises is the epistemic one: how can we evaluate the rational force of the beliefs and modes of reasoning that are documented through these empirical investigations of the knowledge enterprise?
Reposted from02myhumsci-01 02myhumsci-01

#Serres - from The Origin of Geometry

What we have left of all this history presents nothing but two languages as such, narratives or legends and proofs or figures, words and formulas. Thus it is as if we were confronted by two parallel lines which, as is well known, never meet. The origin constantly recedes, inaccessible, irretrievable. The problem is open.

I have tried to resolve this question three times. First, by immersing it in the technology of communications. When two speakers have a dialogue or a dispute, the channel that connects them must be drawn by a diagram with four poles, a complete square equipped with its two diagonals. However loud or irreconcilable their quarrel, however calm or tranquil their agreement, they are linked, in fact, twice: they need, first of all, a certain intersection of their repertoires, without which they would remain strangers; they then band together against the noise which blocks the communication channel. These two conditions are necessary to the diaIogue, though not sufficient. Consequently, the two speakers have a common interest in excluding a third man and including a fourth, both of whom are prosopopoeias of the,powers of noise or of the instance of intersection.(1) <#1>Now this schema functions in exactly this manner in Plato’s /Dialogues/, as can easily be shown, through the play of people and their naming, /their resemblances and differences/, their mimetic preoccupations and the dynamics of their violence. Now then, and above all, the mathematical sites, from the /Meno /through the /Timaeus/, by way of the /Statesman /and others, are all reducible geometrically to this diagram. Whence the origin appears, we pass from one language to another, the language said to be natural presupposes a dialectical schema, and this schema, drawn or written in the sand, as such, is the first of the geometric idealities. Mathematics presents itself as a successful dialogue or a communication which rigorously dominates its repertoire and is maximally purged of noise. Of course, it is not that simple. The irrational and the unspeakable lie in the details; listening always requires collating; there is always a leftover or a residue, indefinitely. But then, the schema remains open, and history possible. The philosophy of Plato, in its presentation and its models, is therefore inaugural, or better yet, it seizes the inaugural moment.

// oAnth - original URL at driftwork.tumblr

Reposted from02myhumsci-01 02myhumsci-01
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