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June 19 2018

Arte-Doku „Sklavinnen des IS“: Sie wollen Gerechtigkeit
Die Jesidin Lewiza wurde vom IS entführt und versklavt. Heute lebt sie dank eines Rettungsprogramms in Deutschland und will gegen die Täter aussagen.
Reposted fromzeitung zeitung

Back to Burgundy

Back to Burgundy.jpg

Ce qui nous lie
Cedric Klapisch - 2017
Music Box Films Region 1 DVD

The original French title of Cedric Klapisch's new film translates as "What binds us". His working title, the homophonic Le vin et le vent translates as "The wine and the wind". Both titles are both more evocative of the familial conflicts at the heart of the film beyond the return of the prodigal son, Jean, to the family vineyard in Burgundy.

As Klapisch confirms in one of the DVD supplements, the film is something of a return to the kind of films made about twenty years ago with When the Cat's Away and Un air de famille. Both films primarily took place within a specific space, a working class neighborhood and the family home. Klapisch also pared away gimmicks and stylistic flourishes, save for a couple of moments when past and present co-exist. As a film about two adult brothers and a sister, Klapisch knows how to economically film the trio in conversation and be visually interesting without resorting to cutting between close-ups and back and forth shots. What is most radical a break for Klapisch is having a film taking place in a country setting, and using a cast of younger, less familiar actors.

After ten years of travel, youngest brother Jean returns to the family domain upon news of his father's illness. Warmly greeted by sister Juliette, Jean has a more tense relationship with older brother, Jeremie. With the death of the father, Jean stays to help with the impending harvest of the grapes. Jean reveals that for the past five years, he's been married with a son, with his own domain in Australia. The siblings have to decide what to do with the family domain as the income from the wine they sell is barely enough to cover the inheritance tax, while they could enjoy a significant profit from simply selling the land. The original French title is more meaningful with the conflicts between the siblings, whether Jean will return to Australia, Jeremie's attempts to keep the peace with his father-in-law - a competing wine maker, and Juliette's hesitation about taking over the family business.

Klapisch chose to make the film about Burgundy, the wine, as it was the favorite of his father's. Also, wine making in the province of Burgundy is still done by individuals and families, and not industrialized. Effort was made to make every aspect shown in both the vineyards and in the processing as authentic as possible. Much of the credit would go to Jean-Marc Roulot, an actual vinter and actor, who shares screenwriting credit and plays the part of the vineyard's operations manager. While not somber, there are just a few lightly comic moments, another break from the big laughs of Klapisch's more recent work.

Klapisch discusses the unusual making of Back to Burgundy in this brief interview.

Reposted frommovieblogs movieblogs

ICANN-Vorschlag: Europol und Interpol als Torwächter für Whois-Daten

Die Internetverwaltung ICANN drängt beim Aufbau eines einheitlichen Whois-Zugriffs für Strafverfolger, Securityforscher und Markenanwälte zur Eile.
Reposted fromzeitung zeitung

June 14 2018

Neighborhood Watch 2.0? Google’s New Patent & Home Security

As with most of the world’s tech giants, Google registers hundreds of patents around the world each year for products they may never manufacture. One of their more recent registrations was for what the London Evening Standard describes as “a hi-tech neighborhood watch”, that would put residential streets in direct contact with their local police ...

The post Neighborhood Watch 2.0? Google’s New Patent & Home Security appeared first on TFOT.

Reposted fromSigalontech Sigalontech

Antarctica ramps up sea level rise

Ice losses from Antarctica have increased global sea levels by 7.6 mm since 1992, with two fifths of this rise (3.0 mm) coming in the last five years alone. The findings are from a major climate assessment known as the Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise (IMBIE). It is the most complete picture of Antarctic ice sheet change to date -- 84 scientists from 44 international organizations combined 24 satellite surveys to produce the assessment.
Reposted fromSigalontech Sigalontech

Higgs boson, top quarks linked in milestone collider discovery

An observation made by an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider involving Florida Institute of Technology physicists Francisco Yumiceva, Marcus Hohlmann and Marc Baarmand has for the first time connected the two heaviest elementary particles of the Standard Model.
Reposted fromSigalontech Sigalontech

Small groups narrow math gap for low-income kids

Teaching low-income, minority kindergartners math in small groups helps with learning and can help bridge the divide with higher-income peers, according to new research.

For a new study, researchers evaluated kindergarten students in the one-year math enrichment High 5s program in 24 low-income elementary schools in New York City.

The findings show that kids who participated in the program received 30 percent more instruction time with more individualized attention, and were exposed to a wider range of advanced math topics and more interactive activities.

“There is an observed gap in achievement between children living in poverty and their peers from higher-income households at school entry,” says Robin Jacob, co-director of the Youth Policy Lab at the University of Michigan.

“That gap only continues to grow over time. By intervening early, the High 5s program narrowed the achievement gap between low-income children and their higher-income peers at the end of kindergarten,” Jacob says.

Students enrolled in the High 5s program met in groups of four students with a trained facilitator for 30 minutes three times a week. Facilitators delivered activities in a game-like format and intended to be fun, engaging, interactive, and developmentally appropriate.

Ready to enter kindergarten? Language skills are key

At the end of kindergarten, the researchers evaluated student math achievement on two different measures—the Woodcock-Johnson applied problems subscale and REMA-K. The students in High 5s scored higher than the control students on the REMA-K.

The effect of the program was equivalent to about two-and-a-half months of learning on the assessment, researchers say.

The researchers are now working to develop a model for such small-group math instruction that requires fewer resources and could be more easily scaled.

“To date, there has been very little research about the effectiveness of small group math instruction in the early elementary school grades,” Jacob says. “This study demonstrates that well implemented, engaging, small group instruction in math has the potential to boost math achievement.”

Good attitude about math gets kid brains in high gear

Brian Jacob, a professor of education and public policy, contributed to the study. The Youth Policy Lab, a collaboration between the Ford School of Public Policy and the Institute for Social Research, partnered with MDRC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan education and social policy research organization, for this research.

Source: University of Michigan

The post Small groups narrow math gap for low-income kids appeared first on Futurity.

Reposted fromSigalontech Sigalontech
Economic Update: An Unsustainable System
Reposted from02mysoup-aa 02mysoup-aa

Humanitäre Hilfe: Streit zwischen Rom und Paris um Flüchtlingsboot weitet sich aus

Macron hatte die Weigerung Italiens, ein Boot mit Hunderten Flüchtlingen aufzunehmen, scharf kritisiert. Gesprächsversuche blieben jetzt erfolglos.
Reposted from02myEcon-01 02myEcon-01

In den USA soll die Einsamkeit grassieren

Besonders betroffen sollen die 18- bis 22-Jährigen sein. Aber sind die Menschen wirklich einsamer oder fühlen sie sich nur so?
Reposted fromzeitung zeitung

Die Vermessung der Werbewelt

Eine wilde Rechnerei ohne Hand und Fuß. Wie Werbung wirklich wirkt - Teil 3
Reposted fromzeitung zeitung

Model predicts how 2 drugs interact to avoid internal bleeding

Scientists have developed a prediction model to guide dosage adjustments of rivaroxaban, an oral blood thinner, in renal-impaired patients taking amiodarone. The work may help reduce the risk of internal bleeding.

Patients often need to consume different medications to manage their illness. However, these pharmaceutical drugs may interact with each another when taken together.

While some of these drug-drug interactions are harmless, others may lead to adverse outcomes. These interactions could enhance the pharmaceutical actions of a co-administered drug, causing it to reach toxic levels. Understanding these kinds of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is important so that medical practitioners can refine the drug dosage to cater for these unplanned effects.

Eric Chan from the pharmacy department at the National University of Singapore and his team have developed a prediction model which is able to predict the extent of DDIs between rivaroxaban and amiodarone. These two medications are frequently co-administered in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), which is the most prevalent heart rhythm disorder.

Rivaroxaban is a widely used oral anticoagulant for stroke prevention in patients with AF, while amiodarone is a common antiarrhythmic drug used to treat AF. The research team had previously discovered that amiodarone inhibits the breakdown and excretion of rivaroxaban. This unintended drug-drug interaction may predispose patients to increased bleeding risks.

With this prediction model, medical practitioners can potentially adjust the dose of rivaroxaban to mitigate the bleeding risk while preserving its anticoagulation effect.

In this work, the research team analyzed the complex interactions using an approach called physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling. The utility of the PBPK approach in informing labeling and dosage recommendations has gained traction in recent years.

With increasing recognition of the challenges involved in conducting clinical DDI trials, major regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency have endorsed the application of PBPK simulations in their guidance documents on DDI assessment.

Device prevents dips and spikes in body’s drug levels

Using PBPK, the magnitude of interactions between two drugs are theoretically predicted from three key components: (1) in vitro mechanistic data, (2) human physiological data, and (3) clinical dosage regimens. Robust PBPK model qualification using published rivaroxaban and amiodarone clinical PK and DDI data as external validation datasets helped researchers achieve confidence in the simulated outcomes.

“To date, the clinical outcome of potential DDIs between rivaroxaban and amiodarone is unknown. Solving this puzzle is significant as the combination of these drugs is clinically relevant for better management of cardiac arrhythmia and prevention of stroke,” says Chan.

The research appears in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Source: National University of Singapore

The post Model predicts how 2 drugs interact to avoid internal bleeding appeared first on Futurity.

Reposted fromSigalontech Sigalontech

Little nectar ‘worlds’ show how species live together

New research unravels the relative importance of two theories about how species coexist.

Picture, for example, a sticky drop of nectar clinging to the tip of a hummingbird’s beak that drips into the next flower the bird visits. With that subtle change, the microbes within that drop are now in a new environment, teeming with other microbes. This is a small example of species forced to live together in the real world.

It turns out that a less popular theory, one having to do with the way organisms respond and contribute to environmental fluctuations, likely plays a bigger role than ecologists had thought—this according to the study of the nectar-dwelling yeast of Stanford University’s Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve. The work, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could influence how scientists model the effects of climate change on organisms.

“This particular experiment was motivated by basic curiosity about how species coexist,” says Tadashi Fukami, associate professor of biology. “We experimented with nectar-colonizing yeasts because we had gathered data about them in the wild, such as hummingbirds visits, interactions with flowers, effects of resources. This way we can design lab experiments that have a clear natural context.”

Two theories

Scientists have proposed two mechanisms to explain how species coexist in variable environments, called the storage effect and relative nonlinearity. The storage effect holds that species can coexist if they can store gains for lean times and their lean times don’t overlap, which means they are mostly competing with individuals belonging to their own species for resources during favorable times.

The concept of relative nonlinearity maintains that coexistence can occur when one species thrives off fluctuation in resources, the other thrives off stability in resources, and each species’ use of resources contributes to the state—fluctuation or stability—that benefits the other.

Andrew Letten, senior author of the paper, led the study as a postdoctoral fellow in the Fukami Lab. The goal was to understand each mechanism’s relative importance to coexistence. He found inspiration in a paper led by a theoretical ecologist at Cornell University, which outlined a new method for quantifying the storage effect through statistical simulations.

“Up until that paper, there was no realistic means of quantifying the relative contribution of the two mechanisms,” says Letten, who is now a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand. “When I read it, I literally felt giddy because it was so serendipitously tailored to what we were already doing, but enabled us to take it so much further.”

Relative nonlinearity wins out

By creating thousands of microcosms, each growing one species of nectar yeasts, the researchers gathered high-resolution data about the complex ways in which the yeasts respond to environmental conditions. Next, they used those data to create scenarios where the yeasts grew in pairs and applied the new method to disentangle the influence of the storage effect from that of relative nonlinearity on the yeasts’ coexistence.

“The idea is, you can mathematically model these coexistence mechanisms, knock them out in the simulations, and then that shows you how those species grow without that mechanism,” explains Po-Ju Ke, graduate student in biology and coauthor of the paper. “For example, relative nonlinearity relies on fluctuations in amino acids in nectar, a primary resource for yeast growth, so we simulated a stable level of amino acids to remove the influence of that mechanism.”

Lastly, the researchers compared their simulated results with the results of experiments where two species were grown together. This work is the first to experimentally tease apart the two mechanisms in real organisms and it agreed with the simulations 83 percent of the time.

Is symbiosis just a sneaky way to take, take, take?

Looking at their findings, the big surprise was that there were instances where a lack of relative nonlinearity led to one species dying out. This contradicts a common assumption among ecologists.

“Storage effect, maybe because it’s an older concept and more intuitive and easier to get data on, has always been assumed to be the main mechanism,” says Fukami. “We found they both can be important, but the main finding is that relative nonlinearity is much more important than most ecologists assumed.”

From micro to macro

Cell and molecular biology often concentrates on studying a particular pathway in intricate detail, whereas ecology tends to focus on larger systems, studying them holistically. In their current work, the Fukami Lab is pursuing research that can apply to both levels.

“As ecologists, we are working to understand holistically how these yeasts are interacting—in the world, with pollinators, with each other, in the nectar—but we can also use the tools that cell biologists have developed to study baker’s yeast to study nectar yeasts in order to gain more precise ecological understanding,” says Callie Chappell, a graduate student in the Fukami Lab and lead author of a different paper in the journal Yeast about developing a general ecological theory using nectar yeasts as new model organisms.

In addition to the fundamental insights into how species can survive together with few resources, the research team hopes that the experiments detailed in the current work will cause ecologists to reconsider how climate change may affect species. Climate change will lead to increased fluctuation in the environment, such as severe weather events, and this work shows that multiple mechanisms of species coexistence in fluctuating environments must be considered simultaneously to predict the fate of species under climate change.

Manpreet Dhami, a former postdoctoral fellow at Stanford, now at Landcare Research, New Zealand, is also a coauthor of the PNAS paper. That work had funding from sources at Stanford and from the National Science Foundation.

Source: Stanford University

The post Little nectar ‘worlds’ show how species live together appeared first on Futurity.

Reposted fromSigalontech Sigalontech

Dwarf planet may host more organic stuff than scientists thought

A new analysis suggests that patches on the surface of the dwarf planet Ceres may contain a much higher abundance of organic material than originally thought.

…because life as we know it can’t exist without organic material, scientists are interested in how it’s distributed through the solar system.

Last year, scientists with NASA’s Dawn mission announced the detection of organic material—carbon-based compounds that are necessary components for life—exposed in patches on the surface of Ceres.

The findings, which appear in Geophysical Research Letters, raise intriguing questions about how those organics got to the surface of Ceres, and the methods used in the new study could also provide a template for interpreting data for future missions, the researchers say.

“What this paper shows is that you can get really different results depending upon the type of organic material you use to compare with and interpret the Ceres data,” says Hannah Kaplan, a postdoctoral researcher at the Southwest Research Institute who led the research while completing her PhD at Brown University. “That’s important not only for Ceres, but also for missions that will soon explore asteroids that may also contain organic material.”

Building blocks

Organic molecules are the chemical building blocks for life. Their detection on Ceres doesn’t mean life exists there or ever existed there; non-biological processes can give rise to organic molecules as well. But because life as we know it can’t exist without organic material, scientists are interested in how it’s distributed through the solar system.

The presence of organic material on Ceres raises intriguing possibilities, particularly because the dwarf planet is also rich in water ice, and water is another necessary component for life.

The original discovery of organics on Ceres was made using the Visible and Infrared (VIR) Spectrometer on the Dawn spacecraft, which went into orbit around the dwarf planet in 2015. By analyzing the patterns in which sunlight interacts with the surface—looking carefully at which wavelengths the surface reflects and which it absorbs—scientists can get an idea of what compounds are present on Ceres. The VIR instrument picked up a signal consistent with organic molecules in the region of Ernutet Crater on Ceres’ northern hemisphere.

To get an initial idea of how abundant those compounds might be, the original research team compared the VIR data from Ceres with laboratory reflectance spectra of organic material formed on Earth. Based on that standard, the researchers concluded that organic matter could explain between 6 and 10 percent of the spectral signature they detected on Ceres.

But for this new research, Kaplan and her colleagues wanted to re-examine those data using a different standard. Instead of relying on Earth rocks to interpret the data, the team turned to an extraterrestrial source: meteorites.

Some meteorites—chunks of carbonaceous chondrite that have fallen to Earth after being ejected from primitive asteroids—have been shown to contain organic material that’s slightly different from what’s commonly found on our own planet. And Kaplan’s work shows that the spectral reflectance of the extraterrestrial organics is distinct from that of terrestrial counterparts.

“What we find is that if we model the Ceres data using extraterrestrial organics, which may be a more appropriate analog than those found on Earth, then we need a lot more organic matter on Ceres to explain the strength of the spectral absorption that we see there,” Kaplan says. “We estimate that as much as 40 to 50 percent of the spectral signal we see on Ceres is explained by organics. That’s a huge difference compared to the 6 to 10 percent previously reported based on terrestrial organic compounds.”

Where did it come from?

If the concentration of organics on Ceres is indeed that high, it raises a host of new questions about the source of that material. There are two competing possibilities for where Ceres’ organics may have come from. They could have been produced internally on Ceres and then exposed on the surface, or they could have been delivered to the surface by an impact from an organic-rich comet or asteroid.

This new study suggests that if the organics arrived by delivery, then the potential high concentrations of the organics would be more consistent with impact by a comet rather than an asteroid. Comets are known to have significantly higher internal abundances of organics compared with primitive asteroids, potentially similar to the 40 to 50 percent figure this study suggests for these locations on Ceres. The heat of an impact would likely destroy a substantial amount of a comet’s organics, however, so whether or not a cometary impact could even explain such high abundances remains unclear, the researchers say.

The alternative explanation, that the organics formed directly on Ceres, raises questions, too. The detection of organics has so far been limited to small patches on Ceres’ northern hemisphere. Such high concentrations in such small areas require an explanation.

“If the organics are made on Ceres, then you likely still need a mechanism to concentrate it in these specific locations or at least to preserve it in these spots,” says coauthor Ralph Milliken, an associate professor in Brown’s Earth, environmental, and planetary department. “It’s not clear what that mechanism might be. Ceres is clearly a fascinating object, and understanding the story and origin of organics in these spots and elsewhere on Ceres will likely require future missions that can analyze or return samples.”

Landslide on Ceres looks like Bart Simpson

For now the researchers hope this study will be helpful in informing upcoming sample return missions to near-Earth asteroids that are also thought to host water-bearing minerals and organic compounds. The Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa2 is expected to arrive at the asteroid Ryugu in several weeks, and NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission is due to reach the asteroid Bennu in August. Kaplan is currently a science team member with the OSIRIS-REx mission.

“I think the work that went into this study, which included new laboratory measurements of important components of primitive meteorites, can provide a framework of how to better interpret data of asteroids and make links between spacecraft observations and samples in our meteorite collection,” Kaplan says. “As a new member to the OSIRIS-REx team, I’m particularly interested in how this might apply to our mission.”

The NASA Astrobiology Institute and the NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute at Brown funded the research.

Source: Brown University

The post Dwarf planet may host more organic stuff than scientists thought appeared first on Futurity.

Reposted fromSigalontech Sigalontech

Grössenwahn in Russland

Für die Fussballweltmeisterschaft bekommt St. Petersburg ein Hochhaus und ein Stadion. Koste es, was es wolle.
Reposted from02myEcon-01 02myEcon-01

US-Druck auf Europa - Wie der lange Arm Washingtons bis zur Strabag reicht

Die US-Sanktionen gegen Russland oder auch den Iran sind so wirksam, weil sie Unternehmen weltweit in Angst versetzen. Strafen auszusprechen ist da nicht einmal nötig
Reposted from02myEcon-01 02myEcon-01

Das Phänomen «Millennials»

Das Verhalten der «Millennials» wird genau erforscht und analysiert. Der Produktmanager versteht trotzdem nicht, wie die junge Generation tickt.
Reposted from02myEcon-01 02myEcon-01

Reiche Justizflüchtlinge in London belasten das indisch-britische Verhältnis

Nach monatelanger Flucht ist der indische Juwelier Nirav Modi, der im Zentrum eines Milliardenbetrugs steht, in London aufgetaucht und hat dort Asyl beantragt. In Indien sorgt das für Empörung.
Reposted from02myEcon-01 02myEcon-01

"Colliding Worlds: Donald Trump And The European Union" by Michael Cottakis

Michael Cottakis

Michael Cottakis

US President Donald Trump is not naturally inclined towards the EU. The EU represents the antithesis of what Trump aspires for in himself, or of the value he sees in others. For the President, the EU is an essentially effete project – a civilian power that likes to see itself as human rights based and collegiate, but with no hard power of its own. It is not a real force in the world because it cannot project military power, or speak with a single, unified voice, putting its interests first.

In political terms too, Donald Trump and the EU are opposites. The first is an ardent believer in the integrity of the nation state and sees a stable international system as a collection of strong nation states that each pursue their interests. The EU was established to oppose the unfettered power of nation states and defuse the rivalries between them. This is a clash of two world views, both claiming to provide a template for global governance into the future. Yet these opposites must learn to attract if the western values upon which both are fundamentally predicated are to survive.

On several occasions during his presidency, Trump has directed unprecedented vitriol towards the EU. This has translated into policy. The decision to impose a steel and aluminium tariff is an act of aggression which makes trade war between the two pillars of the West a grim possibility. Trump has explicitly refused to deal with the European Commission, seeking instead to conduct bilateral relations with individual EU countries. While previous incumbents saw European integration as a core policy interest of the US – a positive sum gain for the West – Trump perceives it as a threat, challenging US dominance of the West and his own ‘nation-state first’ world view. This sustains a paradox: the more Trump attempts to undermine the EU, the more likely it is that the EU begins to act threateningly.

A defensive Brussels, reeling from recent crises and keen to assert itself as an important international actor may, with provocation, respond. The Europeans have various response tools available to them. Counter-sanctions have been discussed in the context of the President’s new EU tariff. In security terms, parallel structures to NATO can be pursued, spearheaded by France and Germany.

The European Commission tends to respond to Trump’s provocations with smugness and belittlement. Other European leaders are cannier and understand better the risks of such an approach. Emmanuel Macron has adopted the guise of the EU’s chief diplomat to the US, speaking regularly with Trump. Climate change, Iran, trade policy and Syria have all been on the French President’s agenda. While discussions remain relatively cordial, little impact is being made in policy terms. With a consistency unanticipated by most commentators, Trump continues to keep many of his electoral promises. The President has withdrawn from the Paris Climate Agreement and the Iran Deal. He pursues protectionist trade policies and adopts aggressive policies on Syria. In so doing, he claims he acts in the interests of the US nation and US worker. However, from the perspective of this respectful outsider, the strategy is detrimental to both.

The international system is greatly changed. A battle of new world views, political and socio-economic models is at play in which new authoritarian values gain ground at the expense of traditional ‘western’ values. The international influence of the US is determined not only by the number of its weapons, or the power of its commerce. Traditionally, it is a consequence also of its power of attraction, the emancipatory quality of its core values – democracy, human rights, economic openness. These values, and their adoption by third countries, have helped drive the world to levels of prosperity never before experienced. These achievements ought not to be squandered. Rather they should be built-upon, promoted and our core values reinvented, addressing the origins of the populist upsurge without damaging the fundaments of the values system. In this effort, the EU ought to be the US’s strongest ally. This relationship should represent a beacon of stability and continuity in an uncertain world.

The US worker will benefit from an open US trade policy. The costs of protectionism will be paid in competitiveness for US companies, and ultimately, in jobs. The EU represents an important market for imports. It is crucial also for foreign direct investment. US companies enjoy the benefits of access to the huge EU Single Market through entry points such as London, Paris, and Frankfurt.

It is thus in US interests that policies are conciliatory towards the EU, seeking to project common trade and security interests through a prism of multilateral cooperation. A rupture would represent a death knell for the West and would harm the US worker. The major beneficiary in global strategic terms: China. Messrs Putin and Erdogan would not mind either.

This post originally appeared on the European Politics and Policy (LSE) blog.

Reposted from02myEcon-01 02myEcon-01

Schiedsgerichte: Geheim klagt sich's immer noch am besten

Eigentlich haben EU und Bundesregierung versprochen, die Arbeit geheimer Schiedsgerichte transparenter zu machen. Doch eine Studie zeigt: Die Zahl der Klagen steigt.
Reposted from02myEcon-01 02myEcon-01
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